Howell Ancestry

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There is no direct evidence for Samuel's place of birth. The earliest record of Samuel was his trial in 1789 at Winchester, Co Hampshire. No indication was given as to whether he was a native of the area of not. Since at that time most people still remained in the area they were born, it is possible Samuel was a native of the Winchester area. An examimation of available Co Hampshire parish records does not reveal any possible connections - in fact Howell appears to be a very rare surname in the county, suggesting in fact that he may have been born elsewhere. With no other evidence of his origins, finding his birth (and hence parentage) is at this stage impossible. In 1786 a Samuel Howell accused of stealing two pieces of iron from John Cricket of Lambeth, Co Surrey.[558] Surrey borders Co Hampshire to the east. Was this the same Samuel who was convicted of theft a few years later in Co Hampshire and then transported to Australia?
   

Medieval Pins
Scarborough, Second Fleet
Artist Unknown
1. Samuel Howell,[425] born 1765[4,432]/1770[15], Co Hampshire, England.[250] Died 1835, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[572] & burial registered 12/5/1835, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (70yo),[4,250,572] Rev. William Cowper, Rector.[572] Constable, 1800.[432] Blacksmith, 1814, 1822, 1825, 1828, 1835.[425,431,432,572] Convicted 5/3/1789,[15,445] at the Hampshire County Assizes,[15,431,445] Winchester,[15,430,445] Co Hampshire, England, and sentenced to death, along with Joseph England, Samuel Howell and Mary Jones for a burglary.[445] Francis Buller and William Henry Ashhurst appealed for mercy on the judgements and Joseph England was recommend a free pardon whilst Samuel Howell and Mary Jones were recommended for transportation for life,[445] the recommend reduced sentences for Samuel & Mary were subsequently accepted.[15,431] At the time of his conviction Samuel was 19yo.[15]
"Samuel Howell who with Mary Jones his accomplice had stolen clothes and other items from Elizabeth Gearle at Wallop and received transportation for life as his reward. Mary Jones, who was originally on the indent of the Neptune, was fortunately for her transferred to the Mary Ann which did not leave England until 1791 and which only nine out of 150 female convicts died."[434] {Elizabeth Gearle, wife of John, resided Nether Wallop, Co Hampshire}
Transported to Australia on the "Scarborough", part of the ill-fated Second Fleet (73 of the ship’s prisoners had died en route),[15,430,522] departing Portsmouth, England, 12/1789[431] & arriving 28/6/1790, Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia.[15,430,431] In July 1791 William Watkins appeared in court, charged with burgling the hut of Samuel Howell, a convict.[435] In 1791 was noted for his "diligence and strict attention to his duty as a principal in the night watch."[425] On 19/9/1798 Samuel was listed as surety on the license granted to Henry Kable to sell spirituous liquors.[526] Received a conditional pardon from Governor Hunter,[430] dated 4/6/1800.[426,522] On 31/12/1809 Samuel published a notice that he was intending to leave the colony on the "Trial".[554] Just over a month later, on 12/2/1810, he published a second notice that he was intending to leave the colony on the brig "Experiment".[425,555] {Why he elected not to leave on the 'Trial" is unknown. His decision not to depart in 1810 likely co-incides with the death Ann Germaine's then partner and the return into Samuel's custody of at least some of his children with Ann - when they parted in 1805 Ann took the children with her  (see below)}
"Claims or Demands upon the following persons are to be forthwith presented to themselves for Payment; they being about to depart the Colony : In the Trial, Samuel Howel.(Gazette 31/12/1809)"[554]
"Claims or Demands. The following Persons being about to depart the Colony, all Claims or Demands on any of the said Persons are respectively requested to be presented to themselves for Payment; Viz. In the Brig Experiment, Samuel Howell.(Gazette 12/2/1810)"[555]
In the 1814 muster Samuel (living seperate from his wife, Ann Germaine) was listed as "off stores", that is he was purchasing (or growing) his own victuals & not relying on Government handouts.[432] On 23/1/1815 was a witness, along with Sarah Griffiths, at the marriage of George Marshall & Mary McCarroll, at St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[430] Samuel signed his name (albiet poorly), indicating that he was literate at the time.[430] The same year he was a witness at the marriage of his daughter, Maria.[425] On 10/9/1818 Samuel was on the of persons to receive grants of land in that year.[527] In 1822 was employed by Simon Lord.[425,430,432] On 2/8/1826 Samuel appeared as the victim of theft in a case at the Sydney Quarter Sessions:
"A Petty Jury having been sworn, John Baker was placed at the bar, charged with having stolen a chest, containing a quantity of wearing apparel and other articles, the property of Samuel Howell, on the 1st of July last.- Not Guilty.(Gazette 9/8/1826)"[443]
"The Court of Quarter Sessions commenced on Monday last, pursuant to public notice, before William Carter, Esq. Chairman, and a Bench of Magistrates. John Baker, of Sydney, free labourer, was indicted for stealing a chest, containing wearing apparel, &c. from Samuel Howell, of the same place, Publican, on the 1st of July last. Not Guilty.(Monitor 18/8/1826)"[521]
{At the time Samuel was living with & working for his son-in-law, William Bruce, who was the publican. Samuel was a blacksmith} In 1828 was employed by his son-in-law, William Bruce, at Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425,432]
Married Ann Germaine (no record of marriage, presumably a defacto relationship).[425,430,432] Separated 1805.[425] Ann born c.1770,[4,15] died 2/3/1823, Windsor, NSW, Australia,[4,250] & buried 3/3/1823, Left section, Row 20, Plot 12,[619] St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW, Australia (Ann Howell, 53yo).[4,619] Ann was convicted 26/7/1790, Norwich City Assizes, Co Norfolk, England,[15,430] & sentenced to transportation for 7 years, then 20yo.[15] Transported to Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia on the "Mary Ann", arriving 9/7/1791.[15,425,430,432] At the time of her death Ann had recieved her freedom by the expiration of her sentence.[250] Mary Jones who was tried at Winchester as Samuel Howell’s co-accused also arrived on the 'Mary Ann'.[425] Samuel & Ann (Germaine) were listed consecutively in the 1800 Muster (suggesting but not proving they were living together).[425] By March 1805 Samuel was advertising that he was no longer liable to Ann's debts (effectively an announcement of a defacto divorce):
"Notice: Samuel Howell gives this public notice that no person shall credit his wife on his Account as he will not be responsible for any debt she may contract. Sydney, March 10 1805.(Gazette 24/3/1805)"[442]
A similar notice was published the following month: "Notice: Samuel Howell gives this public notice that no person shall credit his wife on his Account as he will not be responsible for any debt she may contract.(Sydney Gazette 14/4/1805)"[432,442]
Ann moved to Windsor after she parted with Samuel in 1805.[425] where she had at least two known partners.[425]
Married 2nd Ann Martin (no record of marriage, presumably a defacto relationship).[4,425]
  Ann's identity is unknown. Nor is anything nown about her fate after the birth of James in 1809. According to [250] at the time she was with Samuel she was a convict (whether former or current not specified). Only one Ann Martin had arrived in Sydney as a convict prior to 1809: Ann Martin was convicted 1787, Southwark, Co Surrey, England, sentenced to transportation, then 17yo (born c.1770) and transported to Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia on the "Lady Penrhyn", part of the First Fleet, arriving 1788.[15] Ann & her co-accused, Amelia Levy, were tried at the Quarter Sessions of St Margaret's Hill, Co Surrey on 9/1/1787: "Ann Martin and Amelia Levy committed the 13th day of December 1786 by William Mason Esq. charged on the oath of John Tenant, Anthony Shearcroft, and Ann Brown, (an accomplice) with having feloniously taken and stolen, in the parish of Rotherhithe, some silk handkerchiefs the property of the said John Tenant. The sentence was transportation for seven years."[425]
Another possibility is that Ann was a widow or former Martin spouse. BMD records are incomplete in the early decades, however in 1792 John Martin married Ann Toy and in 1796 a John Martin married Ann Walker.[4] Ann Martin nee Toy was missing from the 1806 muster, presumably deceased.[425] Ann Walker arrived on the  "Indispensable" in 1796, convicted Co Middlesex in 1794 & sentenced to 7 years transportation, then 37yo (born c.1757).[15] She would have been too old to have had James (below) in 1809 & was probably the Ann Martin who died 1820, Parramatta, aged 81.[4] Ann of the "Indispensable" resided with her husband in Parramatta in the 1806 muster, confirming that is her death.[425] The 1806 muster also lists an Ann Martin, wife of J. Martin, arrived 1802 on the "Hercules".[425] There were no Martin's on that ship, nor a listed marriage between 1802-1806, indicating this Ann either arrived free or was a defacto spouse. Without a marriage it is probably impossible to identify who this Ann was.
  "Caution - Whereas Ann the Wife of John Martin (heretofore residing on Cornwallis Farm, but since on a part of the Estate of Thos. Hobby, Esq. at Hawkesbury) hath eloped from her said husband, and is now co-habiting with a man at or near Bardo-narrang. This is therefore, as well as to inform as to caution all and every, person or persons, that I the undersigned John Martin will not be answerable or accountable for any Debt or Debts the said Ann may contract in any shape or under any colour or pretence whatever; And this Notice is made public to prevent any person from being imposed upon by her. John Martin. Witness M. Robinson.(Sydney Gazette 1/10/1809)"[436] {Bardonarrang was in the Hawkesbury district}  
Whilst this does seem suggestive, I doubt it is the right Ann Martin. Samuel & Ann's son was born August 1809, two months before the above notice was posted. Also the above John Martin was living near Windsor & at this time Samuel Howell was in Sydney, still it is an intriquing lead. I suspect Ann Martin alias Amelia Levy is the most likely candidate for Samuel's partner, however there is no firm evidence.
 
Married Bridget McCarthy (no record of marriage, presumably a defacto relationship).[425,432] {According to [250] Samuel married Maria 'Bridget' Junque, however this appears to be an error. Maria was born c.1794 & emigrated to Australia with her mother in 1804 on the 'Experiment', both arriving 'free'.[425] She was the d/o Anthony Jonquay, per 'Coromandel', and his wife Ann Maria.[425] Maria married at Windsor in 1816 so was living there at the same time as Ann Germaine; presumably how Samuel's daughter, Maria, came to know her sufficiently well to have her as a witness at her marriage} Bridget born c.1789,[425] Co Limerick, Ireland.[15]  {To date all attempts to find Bridget's death have proven fruitless, searching for her death as Bridget Howell, Cassidy, McCarthy, Carthy & other variants of those names. A Bridget McCarthy died 1860, Sydney Asylum, however she appears to have been admitted there before 10/1857[4,568] Bridget Howell was still operating a shop as recently as 12/1857.[449] A Bridget McCarthy married Thomas Rock, 1837,[4] the year her 2nd partner was executed, however Thomas & Bridget were having issue into the mid 1840s, too late to have been Bridget McCarthy-Cassidy-Howell-Gillice who would have been in her 50s by then. Bridget was using the surname Howell in 1857, indicating that as late as that year she had not remarried (she evidently wished not to bear the surname of an executed murderer. Bridget would have been about 60yo then, probably too old to have contemplated marriage, especially since by then she was running her own business and did not need the support of a husband} Bridget was convicted 3/1815, Limerick City, Ireland, & sentenced to transportation for 7 years.[15] Transported to Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia on the "Alexander",[15,425] arriving 4/4/1816, listed as "Bridget Carty alias Cassidy".[15,425] In 9/1822 Bridget was in gaol at Sydney, awaiting trial (1822 muster).[425] On 18/10/1822 Bridget was tried at Court of Criminal Jurisdiction,[425,439,523] indicted as an accessory after the fact in the murder of Samuel and Esther Bradley as well as with having stolen property in her possession, but was found not guilty:[425,439,524]
 
Limerick County Gaol
Limerick County Gaol
Artist & date unknown (presumably 1800s)
"Murder. Thomas Barry, William Barry, and Dennis Lamb, were next indicted for the wilful murder of Samuel Bradley and Esther Bradley, on the 15th of August last, at Birch Grove, about five miles from town. Each of the prisoners were arraigned alternately at principals. Also were indicted, John Cochrane and Bridget Howell, as accessaries after the fact; and with having stolen property in their possession.
   A. Berry E. a Magistrate for the Territory, deposed, that upon the 1st of September he was one of a party that was going to dine on the North Shore, upon an estate belonging to Mr. Wollstonecraft; and, upon the way thither, Birch Grove was casually visited; that the premises wore the unwelcome aspect of desertion, the house being thrown open, with every appearance of having lately been plundered; trunks and boxes were broken and half open; wearing apparel was strewed in all parts, and one general confusion manifested itself. Mr. Berry said, that the party remained about 20 minutes on the spot, in which interim a bone was found in a putrified state, supposed to have been the limb of some animal. Upon reaching Mr. Wollstonecraft's, that Gentleman became acquainted with the morning adventure of his guests, and immediately dispatched two of his servants to take charge of the dwelling at Birch Grove, and sent information into town, to Chief Constable Dunn, of the suspicions that had become excited.
   William Thorn, assistant to the chief constable, deposed, that he was dispatched to Birch Grove, where he arrived at sunset; he found the two men, sent by Mr. Wollstonecraft, in charge. This witness bore testimony to the disarranged state of the place; and said that a man's arm was shewn to him, which had been discovered by the two men.
   George Milner Slade, Esq. Coroner, deposed to the verity of the Inquisitions taken before him upon the bodies of the deceased; that which was held on Mr. Bradley being on the 2d, and that on Mrs. Bradley on the 5th of September. A verdict of wilful murder was returned against Thos. Barry, on the first Inquest; and a similar verdict was returned, on the second Inquest, against Thomas Barry, William Barry, and Dennis Lamb. Mr. Slade further deposed, that upon the day of the discovery of the horrid transaction (Monday), the Jury accompanied him to Birch Grove. As near as he (Mr. S.) could recollect, the body of Mr. Bradley was about 500 yards distant from the house, over the side of a hill, lying near to a tree, where a space presented itself between two rocks, that was scarcely sufficient to contain the body, from which it had been removed; the countenance was totally disfigured; the limbs had been much lacerated by dogs; and, close to the back part of the shoulder, the shirt appeared to have been singed :-the body was dressed. The prisoner Thomas Barry was, before the Jury, upon inspecting the body of Mr. Bradley. Mrs. Bradley's remains were found interred 5 feet deep in the garden, about 30 yards from the house; the Jury was conducted to the spot by the prisoner Thomas Barry. Without his aid, all search must have been ever fruitless, as no spot had been left unexamined; and even the earth, which covered the body, had been made to so nicely resemble that all around, that none other but an implicated party could have succeeded in the anxious discovery. The skull appeared to have been beat in on the right temple, and the face had been cut across the mouth. The helpless old woman was buried in her clothes. Without the most distant influence, the prisoner Thomas Barry (the Coroner in formed the Court), made a voluntary confession, of which the following is a true copy:
   "That, on Thursday night, between seven and eight, Mr. Bradley came home; that Mrs. Bradley had come home and had spoken together; that this examinant and Barry (the watchman), and Lamb, were in the house; that Bradley was in the house; and, on his turning round, Lamb fired a piece at the back of Bradley, who did not fall, but was immediately dispatched by Lamb, with a blow from the piece; that Mrs. Bradley, who was in an outer room, was knocked down by the watchman Barry, and killed; and that Barry took her pockets from her side, in which were some bodkins, thimbles, keys, &c. That, as soon as Bradley was killed, he was rolled up in a carpet and put out at the back window. - That they, Barry and Lamb, took the corpse of Mrs. Bradley, and conveyed it to the bottom of the garden, also rolled up in a carpet; - that the two men digged the hole for the purpose of holding Mrs. Bradley's body, this examinant remaining in the house; that he followed them to the spot and covered up the body, and in the mean time the two men went to the house and took away the body of Mr. Bradley; that he heard a conversation between the men respecting the putting of Bradley's body into the water, but he did not see them or the body any more that night; that he staid in the house all night, and the next rooming he scraped the handle of the axe, which was bloody. -Saith, that the next day they met at the slaughter-house, when Barry gave Lamb £6 in dollars, out of £12 or £13 in money which they had taken out of the boxes of the deceased, but they had not rifled the boxes in his presence; they must have turned the boxes over whilst he was employed in covering the corpse of Mrs Bradley, and saith he received £2 in dollars for himself; and that the reason Lamb had £6, was because Barry was to have the personal effects, which they had taken from the house; and Lamb was to have a bundle of Mrs. Bradley's, then in Lamb's possession; that the rest of the property was to be divided, when taken away and sold, between examinant and Barry (the watchman), pigs, boxes, &c. -Saith, that amongst the money there was a crooked half guinea, which Barry had retained. Saith, that Cochrane did not know any thing improper was going forward, but merely went, at the instance of examinant, to fetch some things, which examinant stated to be his property, and under a promise that he should be satisfied; that it was at first intended to take the things to the slaughter-house; but this was given up from a suggestion of Cochrane's that there was meat taking in there; and therefore Cochrane offered to take the things to his apartments, at Mrs. Howells; that Bridget Howell did not know of any thing bad in this transaction; that Barry (the watchman) was privy to Cochrane's being employed; and that Cochrane, when he went to Birch Grove, and looked in, must have seen the disorder and confusion that were there, but no remark was made about it; that Cochrane asked examinant if he would not take any more things, as it was a pity to leave them be hind, but examinant declined taking any more then. Saith, that Lamb was the man that, about 4 months since; ill-used Mrs. Bradley at Lane Cove; when Lamb, and another man, with their faces blacked, went to Mr. Bradley's house at that time; that Barry informed him thereof. -Saith, that the plan of robbing the house, and getting the property, was concerted between Barry and Lamb, to which examinant was privy, about two months since; and that, on the night the murder was committed, and after the piece had been discharged, Barry exclaimed, that he would not be hung, but would put the people out of the way to prevent any discovery. -Saith, he was not aware of or privy to the murder; that it was suddenly done by Lamb, who killed Mr. Bradley; and by Barry, who killed Mrs. Bradley."
Mr Dunn, Chief Constable, deposed, that he reached Birch Grove about 8 o'clock on the evening of the 1st of September, and found the dwelling ransacked as already described. Upon the following morning, at some distance from the house, his attention was attracted by a tree that had but recently been fell, and from which direction an offensive scent issued; he moved some of the boughs, and discovered the body of Mr. Bradley, which had been much torn by dogs; the vacuum, in which it had been thus deposited, was about 18 inches in depth; and the shirt, between the loins and the shoulder, had the appearance of being burnt. As to Mrs. Bradley, Mr. Dunn confirmed the Coroner in that part of his testimony; saying, that the skull had been beat in, the jaw bone broke, and the lip and tongue cut, apparently with the edge of an axe. In examining the house, a broken gun, which had been discharged, was found upon the loft, the barrel of which rather curved, doubtless from the violence of the blow which had caused its present useless state; and in the skilling, up the chimney, an axe was found, which had a remarkable notch or gap in the edge; this was compared with the marks on the tree that covered Mr. Bradley; and the result of which was, that there could be no doubt entertained but that this instrument was used in felling the tree, which was vainly hoped would effectually secrete, from "mortal ken," the remains of a barbarously murdered fellow creature : the elve of the axe had been newly scraped. Mr. Dunn added, that about a fortnight previous to the discovery of the murders, the prisoner Thomas Barry had been apprehended in Sydney for being drunken and riotous; he was taken before the Magistrate of Police, and proving to be an assigned government servant to Mr. Eagar, at large without leave, he was ordered into barracks. Upon that occasion he was searched, and two keys, a silver bodkin, and silver thimble, were found upon his person; and that, in giving an account for the possession of those articles, he then said, that he had a chest of drawers from Mr. Bradley, in part payment of wages, to which the keys belonged; and that the other articles he found on the race-course; declaring also, that he had been in Mr. Bradley's employment for 8 months past. His face, at this time, displayed several scratches, and marks of blood! The prisoner William Barry was taken into custody on Monday, and Dennis Lamb on the Wednesday following.
   Mr. William Hodges, publican in Pitt-street, deposed, that he was upon intimate terms with the deceased Bradley, and that the prisoner Thomas Barry had been in Mr. Bradley's service, up to the time of his disappearance, for a period of nine months, and that he was the only servant. This witness stated, that the last time he saw the deceased, was about a fortnight before the horrid discoverv. He diligently examined the house to find out marks of violence, and only could perceive one apparent drop of blood.
Police Office, George Street, Sydney, 1836
Police Office, George Street, Sydney, 1836
Lithograph - Robert Russell
   Mrs. Margaret Hodges deposed, that she accompanied Mrs. Bradley from town, in a boat with some others, on the 15th August. On reaching Birch Grove the prisoner Thomas Barry came to the landing-place, and Mrs. B. enquiring after her husband, was told that he had gone to Sydney. The poor woman seemed rather alarmed, and asked if any one had been there, to which she was answered by Thomas Barry in the negative; who told his hapless mistress that Mr. Bradley had disposed of the pigs, several of which were on the farm, to some person on board of ship. Mrs. Hodges remained till sunset with her little party, and then bid farewell for the last time to her poor friend, who was looking every moment for the anxious return of her then murdered husband! They had only been at Birch Grove about a week, having for a length of time before resided at Lane Cove. Mrs, Hodges proceeded to state, that next morning, the prisoner Thomas Barry came to her house for some tea and sugar for his master, which was delivered. He told the witness that his master and mistress were in good health, and that Mr. B. returned about half an hour after her departure. Various articles of property were now shewn io the witness; among others, two sofa curtains she identified as having formed part of the property belonging to the deceased, from the circumstance of herself purchasing those very articles for Mrs. Bradley; the two keys, silver bodkin, and thimble, taken from the prisoner Thomas Barry, a fortnight before the discovery, she had no doubt belonged to Mrs. Bradley; and Mrs. Hodges remembered a half guinea to be in the possession of Mrs. Bradley, of which she was very fond :-a crooked half-guinea was presented to her, to which she could not positively swear, but said it much resembled the one she had seen with Mrs Bradley.
   Michael Burn, publican in Pitt-street, deposed, that a watch, which was put into his hands for the purpose of investigation, had been once in his possession, and it then had a chain; he received it from the prisoner Thomas Barry, on the 17th of August, in security for a liquor debt, which he had contracted without the means of paying. In two days after, the same prisoner called for, and obtained the watch; which, however, had been sufficiently marked by the witness as to enable him safely to swear, that that before the Court was the same. A dirty-looking chain was also shewn to him, which he recollected to have been attached to the watch.
   John-Wright, a resident in Philip-street, deposed, that on the night of Saturday, the 17th of August, the prisoner Thomas Barry came to his house, which he was in the habit of frequenting with his late master, between 11 and 12 o'clock, having scratches on his face, and several marks of blood about him. He told the witness that he had been on the rocks, and lost £5.
   William Senior deposed, that his landlord (one Fogarty) had informed him of having purchased a pig from the prisoner Thomas Barry, who slept at his house on the 18th of August; that he saw the pig, which remained at Fogarty's till taken away by the Police. This witness, in his testimony, said that he was present in a conversation that occurred between the prisoners Cochrane and Thomar Barry: the latter asked the former to take care of some property for him, to which Cochrane assented; an inventory of the articles was drawn out by Cochrane, in the presence of the prisoner Bridget Howell, in whose house this circumstance transpired; Cochrane acknowledged to the receipt of the goods contained in the inventory, to which the witness affixed his signature at the request of the prisoner, Cochrane and Thomas Barry. Upon the conclusion of this business, the parties went to a public house, and partook of some spirits.
   Joseph Kearns, a constable, deposed, that he took the prisoner Thomas Barry into custody on suspicion of the present serious charge; he was then attached to a road-party on the South-head road. On his way to town he was very anxious to learn the reason for his apprehension, and wished much to change his dress; and upon being searched at the Police Office, the chain, sworn to by Mr. Burn, together with several et-cæteras, were found upon him.
   William Foster, district constable at Lane Cove, deposed, that Mr. and Mrs. Bradley resided at Lane Cove for a length of time, and that the prisoner Thomas Barry was their servant; but that latterly they had removed to Birch Grove. The watch, sworn to by Michael Burn as having been in the possession of Thomas Barry, he positively identified to belong to Mr. Bradley.
Sydney Gaol (centre building), George St, 1825
Sydney Gaol (centre), George Street, 1825
Lithograph - Augustus Earle
   Henry Robenson, watchmaker, deposed, that the above watch had been repaired by him, for Mr. Bradley, together with another; the numbers and makers' name of which he gave to the Court; and they exactly corresponded with those before the Court.
   James Oatley, watchmaker, deposed, that the prisoner Thomas Barry, brought to him a watch to be cleaned on the 31st of August; one of those presented to him was the watch, and which had been handed over by him to the Police on the 2d of September.
   John Matthews, a constable, deposed, that, he apprehended the prisoner William Barry, at the slaughter-house, to which he belonged as a watchman, on the 2d of September; it was in the middle of the day; he searched him, and found on his person a small net bag; containing dollars and other money, together with the crooked half-guinea before the Court. Upon being required to account for the obtainment of this remarkable piece, in the presence of the Superintendent of the slaughter-house, he first said, that he had not seen Thomas Barry for a fortnight before, and that he had the half-guinea for two years; secondly; that he had seen him (Thomas Barry) the day before, at mass, and that the piece had been in his possession about three months, for which he had given two dollars and sixpence in the market; and thirdly, that the prisoner Thomas Barry actually gave him the half-guinea in payment for a pair of shoes, he giving him, at the time, a dollar in change. Relative to the prisoner Cochrane, this witness further deposed, that he conversed with him, on the way to the Inquest; Cochrane told him that there was no one in the boat but himself and Thomas Barry; and that the latter wished to land the things at the slaughter-house wharf, but which was by himself (Cochrane) declared impracticable. Cochrane told Matthews that he had seen the two Barry's in close conversation before and after the property was brought away from Birch Grove, and that they spoke in Irish. Instead of landing the articles in Cockle-bay, Cochrane said that he proposed to Thomas Barry to bring them to the King's Wharf, to which however Barry was averse. Mr. William Hill, Superintendent of the Slaughter-house, confirmed the previous part of the last witness's testimony.
   George Barnett, a carter, deposed, that the prisoner Cochrane engaged him to remove a load of goods from Mannix's wharf in Cockle-bay, on the 24th of August; he was conducted to the place by the prisoner Cochrane, where he saw the prisoner Thomas Barry standing by the goods on the wharf. They loaded the cart, and just as he was about to leave the spot, his eye caught the person of the prisoner William Barry, who had also tendered his assistance to load the cart. This witness said, that Cochrane directed the prisoner Wm. Barry to remain with the boat and mind the pigs; while they, the carter and Cochrane, went on with the cart. Thos. Barry had then left them. The cart was taken to the house of the prisoner Bridget Howell, where the property was deposited; and the articles before the Court composed a part.
   James Day, deposed, that he belonged to that part of the town gang of which the prisoner Cochrane had been overseer; that he was present when some goods were brought to the house, of the prisoner Bridget Howell, at which Cochrane lodged; that he assisted to unload the cart of its burden, the whole of which waa lodged in Cochrane's room; and that the prisoners Thomas Barry and Cochrane were both present at the arrival of the cart. He enumerated several of the articles, and those in Court he identified to be the same. After the above prisoners had left the house some short time, the prisoner Bridget Howell directed him (the witness) to go down towards the slaughter-house, and 'lend a hand to drive some pigs.' Accordingly he went, and five pigs were found in a boat, of which no one seemed to be in charge; and the animals were then driven to the house of Bridget Howell, by Thomas Barry, Cochrane, and the witness.
   Bernard Fitzpatrick, a constable, deposed, that in the morning after the discovery of the dire transaction, the prisoner Cochrane encountered him in Cumberland-street; he enquired of the witness whether it was true that Thomas Barry was accused of the murders of Mr. and Mrs. Bradley; the witness replied in the affirmative; when Cochrane immediately said, 'if that be the case, he (Thomas Barry) has led me into a great error.' He then informed the witness that he had a great quantity of the property in his possession, which he had assisted Barry to bring from Birch Grove; and offered to conduct him to his lodging to give up the property. The further testimony of this serviceable police-officer only went to say, that in consequence of the prompt and voluntary information of the prisoner Cochrane, the crime was much quicker brought home to the prisoner Thomas Barry than it was probable it otherwise would have been. The prisoner Bridget Howell told the witness that Cochrane obtained the articles found in her house, and in his room, from the prisoner Thomas Barry.
   In addition to the above it came out, that Cochrane told constable Fitzpatrick that he had even gone as far: as the door of the house at Birch Grove, but that he was prevented from entering owing to Thomas Barry having articles ready on the outside to carry down to the boat. Cochrane said, that Barry informed him, that in consequence of an execution being out against him (Bradley) he had returned to Lane Cove; and that he (Bradley) had given him (Barry) this property; which tale quite satisfied his mind as to the removal of the property.
   Mr. Dunn being recalled, said, that the prisoner Cochrane had used every persuasion with the prisoner Thomas Barry, during the Inquest, to declare the whole truth upon the melancholy occasion. John Butcher, district constable, proved that the articles in Court were taken from the house of the prisoner Bridget Howell. Here the prosecution ended.
   Mary Fidden and William Foster were called by the prisoner Dennis Lamb, whose name had not been mentioned by any of the witnesses during the trial, in support of a good character. Mr. Hill, the Superintendent of the Slaughter-house, and Thomas Wright, called on the part of William Barry, gave him a most excellent character for attention to his duty. On the behalf of Cochrane, Patrick O'Brien, deputy overseer of boats, deposed, that Cochrane, on the morning of the 24th of August, requested him to lend one of the boats to remove some pigs and properly from the North Shore; and that the boat was granted to him, which was returned the same afternoon. James Nicholson Esq. Master Attendant, deposed, that it came within his knowledge that the prisoner Cochrane had applied for the loan of a boat on a Saturday; and that he was referred to the overseer of small crafts. As to character, Mr. Nicholson gave him, Cochrane, a most undeniable one for the last eighteen months. Mr. William Hutchinson, Principal Superintendent of Convicts, confirmed the good character of Cochrane ever since his arrival in the Colony, five or six years since. Mr. Hutchinson also said, that the prisoner Cochrane had exerted himself so much in this affair, that it was principally owing to him that the prisoner Thomas Barry had been induced to make the confession; at least, this was the impression on his mind. Mr. Tress, Master Boat-builder, deposed, that the prisoner Cochrane had applied to him for a boat, somewhere about the 24th of August.
   Other witnesses were, called, and matter presented itself in favor of the prisoners Howell and Cochrane; which, however, our limits will neither allow the insertion of, nor indeed is it necessary to be laid before the Public. Suffice it to say, that after a most patient and laborious trial of several hours, a verdict was returned of Guilty against the prisoner Thomas Barry. The other prisoners were adjudged Not Guilty. His Honor the Judge Advocate immediately proceeded to pass the awful sentence of the law upon the convicted murderer, which decreed him to suffer the penalty of death, on Monday the 14th instant, and his body afterwards to be delivered over to be disected and anatomized.(Gazette 18/10/1822)"[439]
 
On 7/11/1825 Bridget was assaulted by Samuel Harris, Harris was convicted at the Quarter Sessions on the 9th, but was given a light sentence since his assault was deemed to have been provoked (presumably by Bridget):
  "Samuel Harris was indicted for a violent assault on Bridget Howell, on the 7th instant. Guilty. Sentenced, on account of his general good character, and on account of the character of the prosecutor, together with his having received some provocation, to be imprisoned one month.(Gazette 14/11/1825)"[441]  
On 17/4/1828 at the Quarter Sessions "Bridget Howell was indicted for receiving stolen property.(Monitor 19/4/1828)"[438] On 18/4/1828 at the Sydney Quarter Sessions Bridget was convicted of receiving stolen property:[525]
  "Bridget Howell, convicted on Friday of receiving a quantity of bran, the property of Mr Francis Girard, knowing it to be stolen, was placed at the bar for sentence. Counsel for the prisoner moved an arrest of judgment on the ground of an informality appearing on the record of the conviction of the principal felon before the Magistrates; inasmuch as he was therein slated to be an 'assigned servant,' without any further allegation to shew that he came within the description of that class of persons over whom the Justices exercise a summary jurisdiction, pursuant to the Act 4, Geo. IV. c.96, § 1g. The Court overruled the objection; the Chairman being of opinion, first, that the description was sufficiently certain, and secondly, that so much of the allegation in the indictment was not material, it being merely necessary to set forth the fact that the principal was convicted, and such conviction, even though erroneous, was presumptive evidence against the prisoner till set aside. The prisoner's Counsel having expressed his intention to bring the matter before the Supreme Court, the Chairman stated, in order that the proceedings might be regular, he should be obliged to pass the full sentence awarded by law to the prisoner's offence; at the same time; his Worship stated, the Court would recommend that it might be mitigated. The prisoner was then sentenced to be transported for the term of fourteen years.(Gazette 23/4/1828)"[440]  
On 19/4/1828 Bridget received her sentence:
  "Quarter Sessions. Saturday. Bridget Howell, who had been remanded for judgment on the preceding day, was brought up to receive sentence. Fourteen years transportation, as being a receiver of stolen property, knowing the same to have been stolen.(Monitor 23/4/1828)"[437]  
After being sentenced Bridget was sent to the Female Factory.[425] In 1828 Bridget resided at the Parramatta Female factory, aged 39.[425] On 12/6/1828 Bridget's daughter, Mary, who was with her in the Female Factory, was placed in the Sydney School of Industry (orphanage).[560] By 1828 Samuel's relationship with Bridget appears to have been terminated and of Bridget's 4 children with Samuel, one (Mary) was in an orphanage, one (Samuel Jr) was living with Bridget's new partner, one (John) had died and the fourth (William) had vanished, presumably also dead.[425,520] On 22/1/1829 Bridget was sentenced to 7 days solitary confinement at the Parramatta Female Factory for quarrelling and bad language in the sleeping quarters.[425] On 27/2/1829 Bridget was sentenced to 24 hours solitary confinement at the Parramatta Female Factory for disobedience & insolence.[425] On both occasions Bridget was listed as a Third Class prisioner,[425] the harshest class of prisioners at the Female Factory, "kept to hard labour, such as moving earth, breaking stones, etc, and is also deprived of tea and sugar."[444] Bridget was still listed as an inmate in 1830.[425] By 1832 Bridget appears to have either been released from her sentence or at least placed on 'home detention', and was claiming to be the wife of Andrew Gillis.[560] On 27/3/1832 Bridget Howell petitioned to have her daughter, Mary (no age or father listed), returned to her custody.[520]
  “Hunter St Sydney
27 March 1832
Sir,
I humbly beg leave to state that about three years and ten months back my daughter Mary Howell was sent to the female orphanage school at the instances of the Revd W. Cowper on account of my being absent from Sydney for some time.
I therefore respectfully entreat the Companions for an order to get my daughter out of the school as I have sufficient means to educate and support her an do for which Il ever feel grateful and beg to subscribe myself your very humble servant.
Bridget Howell
To The Clerk to the Companions, For managing the church Corporation.”[560]
 
On 8/5/1832, the following responses were recorded against Bridget's petition:
  "I believe the within named party (Bridget Howell - crossed out) Mr and Mrs Gallice to be an industrious Man/Woman and fully able to maintain the child (Wm Wilkes)."[560]  
"I am not aware of any objection to the above mentioned persons- they keep a little shop and appear to be industrious- but as the woman signs herself Howell, it might be well to ascertain whether her name be really Howell or Gallice. The woman says they were married by Father Therry (William Cowper)."[560]
Corner of George & Hunter Streets, c.1849
Corner of George & Hunter Streets, c.1849
Watercolour - Andrew Torning
On 27/8/1832 A. Gillice, claiming to be Mary's parent or guardian, filed a request to Mary to be returned to her custody.[520] Bridget's 2nd partner was Andrew Gillis (also recorded as Gibbs).[560]
In the 1828 Muster Andrew Gillis (alias Gibbs, alias Gillan) was listed as 30yo, a convict, arriving on the "Isabella" in 1822, with a 7 year sentence, Roman Catholic & a dealer residing at Hunter Street, Sydney.[15,560] At the time Bridget's son, Samuel, was living with Gillis.[560] Andrew was convicted 1821, Co Fermenagh, Ireland, then 23yo.[15,560] On 18/4/1822 he was assigned to Elizabeth kelly, alias Tubman, of Hunter Street, Sydney, whilst working on the town gang.[15,560] In 1834 Andrew Gallice received 100 acres at Mangrove Creek, County Northumberland, NSW, Australia.[560] On 16/11/1836 Andrew Gallice was committed on charge of murder committed near Yass on 10/4/1835 and had applied for Bail as he had “considerable property in the interior”, his application was refused.[560] On 13/2/1837 Gallice appeared in court to answer the charge, was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging, the sentence being executed on the 15/2/1837.[561,562,563]
"Supreme Court - Criminal Side. Monday, February 13.— (Before His Honor the Acting Chief Justice and a Civil Jury). Andrew Gillies stood indicted for the wilful murder of John Kelly, at Yass, on the 10th day of April, 1835.
James Donnagher deposed — I was Chief Constable at Yass in 1835; I recollect John Kelly; he had been in the employ of Gillies (who travelled about the country, selling rum, sugar, tea, &c.) and came to the Yass Bench to give information of his (Gillies) retailing spirits without a license; an information having been filed, Kelly was sworn in as constable, and received arms to go with me to seize the prisoner's teams and the spirits; we went to Russel's, about forty miles from Yass, where we found a cask, a small keg, a tarpaulin, and the teams, in charge of a man named Hoy; seized the casks and teams and took them to the Bench at Yass; a man named Aikin was with us driving a team; I gave Kelly orders to go and serve the summonses on the people whom he mentioned as having purchased spirits of Gillies; he went away, and I never saw him afterwnrds; he wore high-low shoes, a black hat, brown jacket, and nankeen trousers; he was about five feet four inches in height, of a sandy fresh complexion, about thirty-five years of age; there were a good many people at Russell's, but it was not a public-house; after parting from Kelly, I proceeded towards Yass with the two carts and horses, and the driver; Kelly should have been back on the Tuesday-week following, to have given evidence against the prisoner; when the day came, Kelly was still absent, and the Court adjourned; the prisoner attended, as did Hoy; the effects were held in custody for some time, but Kelly not appearing, they were ordered to be delivered to the prisoner; I was not chief constable when Hoy turned approver; I was never sent to where the grave waa found, nor have I since seen any clothes of the deceased; it was suspected that Hoy was interested in the sale of spirts by Gillies, but there was no information against him. By a Juror — One of tho persons for whom Kelly had a summons, named Flinn, appeared at the Court. Edward Burke Roach, sworn — I am chief constable at Yass; I remember receiving a warrant from Mr. O'Brien, I think in September or October last, to attend Hoy in the apprehension of Gillies, for the murder of John Kelly; I proceeded to the station of prisoner at Colah Creek, where I apprehended him; I read the warrant to him; Hoy was outside the door; prisoner did not appear at all agitated, but said 'very well;' I proceeded to the spot where the body was said by Hoy to have been buried; Hoy pointed out the place, and assisted in raising the body; his recollection of the place was not perfectly accurate; the body was lying alongside of a log of wood; he found a shoe and dug up the feet first; when I told the man to dig at the other end he did so and found the skull, which I put in a bag and brought away, leaving the rest of the body; the remains were three feet below the surface; it was about three feet from a running stream of water which, at times, is very wide, extending over the spot on which the body was found, with very deep water-holes; there were some stones on the body which appeared to have been accidentally placed there; I went to the spot again last Friday, and examined the remains, the bones of which were kicked about; I could only find one shoe, or a lace-boot, a piece of brown cloth, apparently a sleeve of a jacket, a button, and three-and-sixpence in money; there is no place for crossing the water near there; it is a clear stream of running water, the chain of holes or ponds are very deep, and in fact, in winter, form a wide river. Cross-examined by Mr. Foster — I did not hear that Gillies was about to give information against Hoy for cattle-stealing. John Hoy, deposed — It will be two years ago in March since I left Mr. Roberts' employ as stock-man, and went to Phil Ward's, at Cunningham's Creek, where I found Gillies' teams — two horses and two carts, and a man and a boy; in the cart were quantities of rum, tea and sugar; prisoner was away looking for cattle, but a day or two afterwards I saw him, and was drinking with him at Ward's; Gillies had two casks in a cart nearly full of rum; prisoner left Ward's and went to Harris's; I went after him on the following day, and saw him selling rum; Kelly was not at Phil Ward's, but he came up while we (prisoner and I) were at Harris's, which was the first time I saw him; Gillies asked what made him stop so long away — words ensued — and Gillies paid him his wages and sent him away; the teams were then sent to a water-hole ten miles from Harris's, and when we has been there for a few days, word came by a man named Dacey, that a constable was coming from Yass to seize the rum, in consequence of information given by Kelly; the rum was then hid in the bush, about a mile from the water-hole; Gillies swore that if he met Kelly he would shoot him; a constable and Kelly came and seized the teams and property belonging to Gillies, and took them to Yass; next morning the prisoner and I started for Yass, where we learned that Kelly had gone to the Murrumbidgee to serve summonses on those persons who had purchased rum of Gillies; the following day, the trial came on, but Kelly was not to be found; Gillies said he would go and endeavour to find Kelly to make it up with him, as, if the case was tried, Mr. O'Brien would not only fino him, but sieze upon all he had, which would ruin him; we started to go to Bogolong, to a Mr. Connor's, and met Kelly, armed with a musket; when he came up he stood aside from Gillies, who got off his horse, and threw himself on his knees, and said to Kelly, he hoped he would not ruin him — that he would sooner give him the amount of money in which he should be fined than give it to Mr. O'Brien, as in the latter case everything he had would be seized; Kelly said, 'If I make it up what will I do with Mr. O'Brien's musket?' The prisoner said, 'the musket is easily planted in the bush, and if you consent not to go to Yass, I will give you £30;' Kelly consented and Gillies paid him £30 in notes; we started on there, and whem we came to the Creek, Kelly and the prisioner went down to drink, while I held the horses; Gilles first drank; then Kelly went, leaving his musket on the bank; whem he (Kelly) stooped to drink, I saw Gillies pick up a stone of about two or three pounds weight, and threw it sideways at Kelly; I know it struck Kelly, because he immediately fell on his mouth; Gillies then rushed down and seizing him by the collar, struck him several blows towards the back of the head with a stone which would weight perhaps seven or eight pounds; I let go the horses and rushed towards him, crying out, 'In the name of God, what the devil are you doing?' he told me if I did not stand back, he would shoot me; I ran back and was about to ride away when he called out, 'Jack, Jack, for God's sake, come back;' I said, 'I dare not while you have that piece,' he then took out the flint and endeavoured to draw the charge, but could not, when he thew the musket into the waterhole; Kelly was then lying dead on the bank; when I went to him, he said, 'Jack, my life is in your hand; he's done - he'll never put any more money in the pocket of government;' he then took the £30 out of the pocket of the deceased; he took the hankerchief off his neck, and that of the deceased and tied his legs and arms, and fastened a stone to the body, and rolled it into the water-hole; I gave no information of the murder until about a year after the occurrence; I thought if I did that it would be endangering my own security in that part of the country.
James Connor, sworn. - In the month of April, 1835, the prisoner called on me to request that I would not appear to a summons which he said was issued for my appearance to give evidence respecting having purchased some rum of him; he told me he would give the informer £30 if he would settle it. In his defence the prisoner strongly protested his innocence of the charge, and stated that the approver Hoy was himself the murderer of the man Kelly.
After His Honor had summed up, which duty was performed in a luminous manner, the Jury retired for a few minutes, and on their return, pronounced a verdict of Guilty. The prisoner was then sentenced to be executed on Wednesday morning, at the usual place.(Australian 17/2/1837)"[561]
"Execution.-Yesterday morning, at the usual hour, the utmost penalty of the law was carried into effect upon Andrew Gillis, convicted of wilful murder on Monday last, under circumstances of considerable aggravation. The culprit was attended in his last moments by the Rev. Mr. McEncroe, to whose instructions he appeared to pay great attention. He asceded the scaffold with stoical firmness, and, every thing being prepared, the fatal signal was given, the drop fell, and Gillis's soul ascended to its Maker, to be judged of deeds committed in the flesh. It is said that he persisted in his innocence to the last.(Gazette 16/2/1837)"[562]
"Execution.-On Wednesday morning, Andrew Gillies, a squatter in Argyle, was executed for the wilful murder of James Kelly. The murder was committed for the purpose of preventing the deceased from giving evidence against the prisoner for selling spirits without a license, and had been committed upwards of a year, when information was given by an approver. The wretched man made no remarks. [We wonder if Gillies sat lately on any case of murder in our precious-precious Jury box].(Herald 20/2/1837)"[563]
In 1832 Bridget & her then partner, Andrew Gillis, were operating a shop in, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[560] Bridget was still running a shop, as Bridget Howell, in 1857,[425] possibly the same shop she had with Gillis in 1832.[560] On 7/12/1857 Bridget was a shopkeeper, listing herself as the wife of Samuel Howell.[425]
  "Central Police Court. Monday. Before Mr. Forbes, Mr. Lyons, and Mr. Egan.
John Lynch, 15 years of age, and William Holland, 14 years, were on Saturday, and today by remand, brought before the Bench by Constable O'Keeffe, who deposed that in consequence of information received he apprehended Lynch for having obtained from a Mrs. Clarke the sum of 20s. by falsely pretending that the piece of paper (a blank form of note for £1, with interest, payable at the Royal Bank of Australia by the Australia Wool Company) produced; he said that Holland gave it to him for the purpose of procuring 20s., which he handed to him; in consequence, apprehended Holland, who admitted having given Lynch the note and receiving the money, and gave up 14s., which he said was part of the money; Holland said that he took it from a man who owed him money; he (witness) made inquiry of thet person referred to, who said that he never owed Holland anything, but gave him the paper in question, telling bim at the same time, that it was not a pound note, but a wool duffer; witness understood the term duffer to mean a thing of no value. Bridget Clarke, wife of Thomas Clarke, of Parramatta-street, labourer, deposed that on Friday Lynch asked her for change of a pound note, at the same time handing her the paper produced; believing it to be a genuine £1 note, gave him 20s. in silver for it. Both prisoners were committed for trial.
The boy Holland was then charged with stealing money from a box in a dwelling. Bridget, the wife of Samuel Howell, residing at the Glebe, shopkeeper, deposed that on last Saturday week, in the afternoon, she had on a shelf in the shop, a box containing a purse and some silver money-how much she could not precisely say, but more than 5s. and less than 20s.; on a shelf near it was also 3s. or 4s in money; she had occasion to leave the shop a minute or two, and on her return the box and money were gone. Bridget Roden deposed that on the afternoon named she saw Holland leaving Mrs. Howell's shop, carrying a box like that missed by Mrs. Howell, another boy was with him, but she could not recognise Lynch as that boy. Holland was on this charge sentenced to be imprisoned with hard labour three months. This boy Holland is one of the most expert and experienced thieves at present known in Sydney, and though so young has been many times in custody, and has thrice been sentenced to three months' imprisonment from this Bench for larceny, and was once, about three years since, sent for trial to the Quarter Sessions, the result of which we do not remember.(SMH 8/12/1857)"[449]

 
Samuel & his family resided 1800, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[432] Resided 1814, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[432] Resided 1822, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[430,432] with children Mary (5yo), Samuel (3yo) & John (1yo).[425] Resided 1825, Sydney, NSW, Australia, with wife & children Mary (8yo) & Samuel (6yo).[425] Samuel resided 1828, with his daughter, Maria, Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425,432,440] {Of Samuel's 4 children with Bridget, by 1828 one was in an orphanage (Mary), one was fostered out (Samuel), one had died (John) and the fourth vanished, presumably also dead (William).[425,520]} Samuel resided 1835, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Bridget resided 1832, Hunter Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[560] Bridget resided 1857, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[449]

Children of Samuel Howell & Ann Germaine:
* i.
 
Henry Howell, born c.1794,[4,250] Port Jackson, NSW, Australia.[250]
* ii.

Maria Howell, born c.1796, Port Jackson, NSW, Australia.[250,432]
* iii.

Hannah Howell,[4,235,236] born 1795[4,66]/1797[234]/1800[235]/1803,[425] Sydney, NSW, Australia.[66]
iv.

son, born before 1806.[432,433] Living his mother, Ann Germaine, 1806.[432,433] {Unknown if a son of Samuel or was a son of Ann Germaine to a different father - Ann had at least 4 known partners}

Children of Samuel Howell & Ann Martin:
i.
 
James Howell, born about 9/8/1809,[429] baptised 1809, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1809 & buried 1/11/1809, Old Burial Ground, Sydney, NSW, Australia (12wo).[429] Burial recorded St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[429]

Children of Samuel Howell & Bridget McCarthy:
* i.
 
Mary Ann Howell, born 22/10/1818,[560] baptised 1818, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] On 12/6/1828 Mary, listed as both 10yo & 12yo and with parents as both Samuel & Bridget Howell and Samuel & Bridget Cassidy, was admitted to an orphan's school.[520] On 27/3/1832 Bridget Howell petitioned to have Mary (no age or father listed) returned to her custody.[520] On 27/8/1832 A. Gillice, claiming to be Mary's guardian, also filed a request to Mary to be returned to her custody.[520] In 1828 Mary (as Mary Howlett) resided at the Sydney School of Industry (orphanage).[425]
ii.

Samuel Howell, born 22/7/1819,[425] baptised 1819, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (mother 'Biddy').[4] No trace of a marriage, death or issue in NSW.[4] In 1828 Samuel, then 8yo, was a lodger with Andrew Gibbs, Hunter Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425] {This was actually Andrew Gillis, whom Samuel's mother 'married' after parting with Samuel Howell Sr sometime in the late 1820s.[560]}
iii.

John Howell, baptised 1821, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1823, burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (inf).[4]
iv.

William Howell, born c.1822, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[250,425] Listed on the 1822 muster (less than 1yo) as s/o Samuel & Bridget.[425] Missing from the 1825 muster, possibly died in infancy.[425] {Note also that whilst Samuel Jr has been located in the 1828 census and in the same year Mary Ann was in an orphan's school, no trace has been found of William

     
County Hall, Winchester, Co Hampshire
County Hall, Winchester, Co Hampshire
Engraving - G. Newton, 1786
New Gaol, Jewry Street, Winchester
New Gaol, Jewry Street, Winchester, 1825
Artist unknown
Cottage, Nether Wallop, Co Hampshire
Cottage, Nether Wallop, Co Hampshire
Photograph © Chris Talbot [Geograph]
  Winchester (archaically known as Winton and Wintonceastre) is a historic cathedral city and former capital city of England. It is the county town of Hampshire, in South East England. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe. Settlement in the area dates back to pre-Roman times, with an Iron Age enclosure or valley fort, Oram's Arbour, on the western side of the present-day city. After the Roman conquest of Britain the civitas, then named Venta Belgarum or "Market of the Belgae", was of considerable importance. At the beginning of the 3rd century Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city had covered an area of 144 acres, which made it the 5th largest town in Roman Britain. Like many other Roman towns, Winchester began to decline in the 4th century. The city became the capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex c.686. The Saxon street plan laid out by Alfred the Great is still evident today: a cross shaped street system which conformed to the standard town planning system of the day – overlaying the pre-existing Roman street plan. The town was part of a series of fortifications along the south coast. Built by Alfred to protect the Kingdom, they were known as 'burhs'. The medieval city walls, built on the old Roman walls, are visible in places. Only one section of the original Roman walls remains. Four main gates were positioned in the north, south, east and west plus the additional Durngate and King's Gate. Winchester remained the capital of Wessex, and then England, until some time after the Norman Conquest when the capital was moved to London. The Domesday Book was compiled in the city early in the reign of William the Conqueror. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline.[Wikipedia] County Hall. Winchester Castle was founded in 1067. Only the Great Hall exists now. Between 1222–1235, Henry III added the Great Hall. Built of flint with stone dressings, originally it had lower walls and a roof with dormer windows. In 1873 the roof of the Great Hall was completely replaced. An imitation Arthurian Round Table hangs in the Great Hall. The table was originally constructed in the 13th century, and repainted in its present form for Henry VIII; around the edge of the table are the names of King Arthur's knights. The Great Hall served as the city & county courthouse up to 1972.[Wikipedia, Antiquities of England & Wales] Nether Wallop is a village in central Hampshire, England. It is part of The Wallops (Nether, Middle and Over Wallop). The name derives from 'waella' (stream) and 'hop' (valley) or 'the valley of springing water'. The element 'Wallop' is first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as 'Wallope'; 'Wollop inferior', that is, Nether Wallop, is first mentioned c.1270 in the church registers. The village contains many old thatched cottages. The church is partly Anglo-Saxon, and unique fragments of frescoes apparently dating to the late Anglo-Saxon period have been discovered. Nether Wallop is home to a small primary school, The Five Bells Public House and a couple of small shops, a village hall and St Andrews Church. Over Wallop also has a church, St Peters, a post office and a small village shop and the White Hart Public House. Together the two villages and the area referred to as Middle Wallop are known as the Wallops and run in a line roughly North to South following the line of the Wallop Brook which has its source in Over Wallop.[Wikipedia] Hampshire Crime & Punishment. The attitude of society to criminals during the 18th century was harsh and punitive, fuelled by fears concerning the safety any property, however modest. Petty offenders were accommodated in local prisons known as Bridewells, whilst others guilty of serious crimes and sentenced to deatgh or transportation or those sentenced for debt were sent to nearby County gaols. Much of the criminal activity at the time however went unpunished. There was no police force, therefore for a citizen to seek restitution & judgement in the courts was a costly and time-consuming affair. Travel expenses (especially for those living in the rural areas), loss of earnings whilst at court, compensating witnesses, not to mention all the fees for clerks and legal staff (one had to pay to have a case heard in court), all resulting in a heavy cost for someone of moderate means. Criminals often continued their depredations for years or even decades until finally brought to court - or otherwise dealt with. Prisoners were quite often discharged or acquitted due to lack of evidence, the unwillingness of witnesses to attend or "no true bill". In the July 1779 quarter sessions 13 out of the 17 prisoners up for trial were discharged. Despite all the difficulties in obtaining a successful prosecution, there were some that Winchester Assizes sentenced during the last 20 years of the 18th century, either to transportation to be sent to the gallows for execution. Though a number of death sentences were later reduced to transportation. Death sentences "differed" in their severity. The usual procedure was for the criminal to be taken to the gallows in a cart - the gallows being about a mile up the road to Andover opposite Gallows Field - after the execution had been carried out the family or friends were allowed to dispose of the body themselves. More serious offenses, including treason, incurred more 'colourful' deaths, such as the infamous hanging, drawing and quartering. Of those convicted in Winchester between 1783-1791 and transported to Australia, the commonest crimes included assaults and highway robberies, burglaries and the theft of animals. At nearly every quarter sessions and assizes, the theft of animals were reported and this occurred all over the county. Mostly it was the stealing of a fowl or two, perhaps even a sheep for food or a horse to sell, but there were also organised gangs who stole horses. Gangs often exchanging horses that had been stolen in one county, for those that had been stolen in another. Prisons were not necessary very large and only expected to hold prisoners until their cases came up at the next quarter sessions or assizes, then the judges did their job and the prisons became empty. Most of the sentences consisted of whipping, the stocks, fines or being sent to the bridewell for terms ranging from a few days to a year or two with hard labour. These could all be accomplished in a few days and even hangings were rarely delayed for more than a week. Prisoners were routinely ironed or even chained to the walls or floors to prevent them escaping. Many prisons were located in ancient castles, in rooms at the backs of inns or even in stables and barns. The situation for the prisoners became worse if they could not afford to send out for food or to pay for straw to sleep on - he might even die of starvation. A very small ration of bread were given but as prices began to rise steeply at various times over the century, prisoners received less to eat from the fixed sums of money which did not rise with the times. Even allowing for the poor rations and the overcrowding in dirty conditions, there was the ever-present risk of gaol fever. The lower part of the West Gate in Winchester, part underground, dark and dank, was for many years a prison and c.1776 it was noted that more than twenty prisoners had died in it of the gaol fever in one year, as well as the previous gaol keeper. It was not until 1805 that a new gaol was built at Winchester.[Hampshire Crime & Punishment]  
     
View of Sydney Cove, 25 May 1798
View of Sydney Cove, c.1797
Painting - Thomas Watling
Sydney Cove from Pitt's Row, c.1797
Sydney Cove from Pitt's Row, c.1797
Engraving - Thomas Watling
Sydney, from the east, c.1808
Sydney, from the east, c.1808
Image - John Eyre
  The 'Scarborough' was a transport ship of 430 tons, built at Scarborough in 1782. She formed part of the First Fleet, which commenced European settlement of Australia in 1788. Her master was John Marshall, and the surgeon was Dennis Considen. She left Portsmouth in 1787 and arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia, on 26 January 1788. On leaving Port Jackson on 5 May 1788, in company with the Lady Penrhyn, she traveled to China, returning to England on 15 June 1789. She returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790. Her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer. She arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, and spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, and 8 male convicts from HMS Guardian, which had been wrecked after striking an iceberg. She and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June, 160 days out from England. During the voyage 73 convicts died (28%) and 96 (37%) were sick when landed.[Wikipedia] The Second Fleet is the name of the second fleet of ships sent with settlers, convicts and supplies to colony at Sydney Cove in Port Jackson, Australia. The fleet comprised six ships: one Royal Navy escort, four convict ships, and a supply ship. The ships were intended to sail to Australia together, arriving at Sydney Cove in 1789. However the escort was disabled en route and failed to make the destination, and one convict ship which was delayed arrived two months after the other ships. Unlike the preceding First Fleet, where great efforts were taken to ensure the health of the convicts, the Second Fleet was contracted to private businesses who kept the convicts in horrific conditions. Upon arrival the sickly convicts were a drain on the already struggling colony. The Lady Juliana sailed before the other convict ships and is not always counted as a member of the Second Fleet. The storeship Justinian did not sail with the convict ships and arrived before them. HMS Guardian set out before the convict ships but struck ice after leaving the Cape of Good Hope, returned to southern Africa and was wrecked on the coast. The Surprize, Neptune and Scarborough were contracted from the firm "Camden, Calvert & King" who undertook to transport, clothe and feed the convicts for a flat fee of £17 7s. 6d per head, whether they landed alive or not. This firm had previously been involved in transporting slaves to North America. The only agents of the Crown in the crew were the naval agent, Lieutenant John Shapcote, and the Captain of the Guard, all other crew were supplied by the firm. The transports were "wet" ships with musty, dark prison areas that were wet due to water seepage. When passing through the tropics the stench aboard must have been indescribable, the nauseating smell of disease, of stagnant bilge water, rotting timbers and the foul reek of unsanitary conditions. The contractors supplied their own agent, the guards, the surgeon and the ship masters and crew. Most of the crew was hard drinking, brutal, illiterate and often recruited from taverns and other such places. The conditions aboard the convicts ships were gloomy, dank and unsanitary, and disease would take the heaviest toll of convicts, primary among these were scurvy, dysentery, typhoid fever and smallpox. But on the Second fleet starvation would take the highest & heaviest toll of the prisoners chained below the decks. They left England on 19 January 1790, with 1,006 convicts (928 male and 78 female) on board. They made only one stop on the way, at the Cape of Good Hope. Here 20 male convicts, survivors from Guardian, were taken on board. The three vessels made a faster trip than the First Fleet, arriving at Port Jackson in the last week of June 1790, three weeks after Lady Juliana, and one week after the storeship Justinian. The passage was relatively fast, but the mortality rate was the highest in the history of transportation to Australia. Of the 1,026 convicts embarked, 267 (256 men and 11 women) died during the voyage. On Neptune they were deliberately starved, kept heavily ironed, and frequently refused access to the deck. Scurvy could not be checked. On Scarborough, rations were not deliberately withheld, but a reported mutiny attempt led to the convicts being closely confined below decks. Captain William Hill, commander of the guard, afterwards wrote a strong criticism of the ships' masters stating that “the more they can withhold from the unhappy wretches the more provisions they have to dispose of at a foreign market, and the earlier in the voyage they die, the longer they can draw the deceased's allowance to themselves”. On arrival at Port Jackson, half naked convicts were lying without bedding, too ill to move. When the officials boarded the three transports they were confronted with the sight of convicts, most near naked, lying where they were chained. Most were emaciated with a lot dead in their chains or very close to death. The majority of the convicts were unable to speak, walk or even get to their feet. All were degraded, covered in their own body waste, dirt and infested with lice- and all exhibited the savage brutality of beatings or floggings as well as the visible signs of the starvation they had endured. Those unable to walk were slung over the side. All were covered with lice. At least 486 sick were landed (almost half of those embarked). The remainder were described as “lean and emaciated” and exhibiting “more horrid spectacles than had ever been witnessed in this country”. The majority of the convicts that hadn't died on the voyage were that ill that they were unable to walk. A small town of tents was set up at the landing place to act as a temporary hospital. The colony, barely two years old and on the verge of starvation, was forced to care for 759 starved, abused and near to death individuals. Among the arrivals on the Second Fleet were D'Arcy Wentworth and his convict mistress Catherine Crowley, on Neptune, and John Macarthur, then a young lieutenant in the New South Wales Corps, and his wife Elizabeth, on Scarborough. When news of the horrors of the Second Fleet reached England, both public and official opinion was shocked. An enquiry was held but no attempt was made to arrest Donald Traill, master of Neptune and described as a demented sadist, or bring a public prosecution against him, the other masters, or the firm of contractors. They had already been contracted by the government to prepare the Third Fleet for sailing to Port Jackson in 1791. Traill and his Chief Mate William Ellerington were privately prosecuted for the murder of an un-named convict, seaman Andrew Anderson and John Joseph, cook. But, after a trial lasting three hours before Sir James Marriott in the Admiralty Court, the jury acquitted both men on all charges "without troubling the Judge to sum up the evidence".[Wikipedia, The Convict Death Fleet]  
     
St Phillip's, Sydney, 1848
St Phillip's, Sydney, 1848
Engraving - Joseph Fowles
Parramatta Female Factory, c.1826
Parramatta Female Factory, c.1826
Painting - Augustus Earle
Glebe, Sydney, c.1870
Glebe, Sydney, c.1870
Photograph - Walter Chaffer
  St Philips. The first chaplain in Australia, Rev Richard Johnson, arrived with the First Fleet. For the first five years church services in the colony were held in the open air or in temporary buildings around Sydney Cove. The first church was built of wattle and daub in 1793 at what is now the corner of Bligh and Hunter Streets, to costs of construction were paid for by Johnson. The church was a T-shaped building, with a thatched roof and an earthen floor, it could seat 500. During the week it served as a schoolhouse where Johnson and his wife, Mary, taught between 150 and 200 children. It was burnt down in 1798. The same year work began on building a replacement stone church, located on a rise of land that was to become known as Church Hill, across the road from the present building. In 1800 the foundation stone was laid for what was to become the first St Philip's. A brick store on George Street, which had been completed in 1798 was pressed into service as a temporary church until the stone St Philip's and in 1800 the newly built Orphan School was used for church services until January 1808, after which there was no Church of England minister in the colony until St Philip's opened in August 1809. The first part of St. Philip's to be built was the clock tower, which was of brick and finished in 1797; this however having fallen in June, 1806, was rebuilt of stone in the same year. The church itself was commenced in 1800, but not ready for use until 1809, when the Rev. W. Cowper officiated therein for the first time. It was completed about a year afterwards, and a handsome Altar Service of silver presented to it by His Majesty King George III. 'Old' St Philip's served Sydney from this date until 1856 when the present church was consecrated. In 1802 Australia 's first two parishes were proclaimed, St Philip's (Sydney) and St John's (Parramatta). The first two incumbents to minister to the people from the Church were William Cooper, followed by his son William Macquarie Cooper, who served the parish for a total of 60 years.[Sydney Architecture, Places of Worship, Sydney in 1848] Limerick County Gaol. Still in use as a prison, today known as Limerick Prison. Located on Mulgrave Street, Limerick, it is a medium security prison, with an official capacity of 290 male beds and 20 female beds. During 2009 the prison averaged 298 male prisioners and 22 female prisioners. The present gaol was built between 1815 and 1821, but has undergone extensive renovation since then. Many of the old wings have been replaced. The original female section of the prison is generally not used except in cases of severe overcrowding. The present building was designed by James Pain. In 1807 the following description was given of the earlier gaol (presumably the one Bridget was an inmate):
"One building contains the prisoners for the County and City of Limerick. I had recommended to the Local Inspectors the necessity for an insulating wall, to protect the court walls of this Prison, in the angles of which centinels should be placed. Had this advice been taken, the frequent escapes made since could not have happened. The Lodge, intended by the Architect for a Turnkey, is occupied by a military guard; the centinel sometimes demands money for admitting persons to see their friends: I once experienced this impropriety, and complained to the Commanding Officer; it was then prohibited, but I am told it has been sometimes since practised. The Gaol is kept clean. The imprisoned Debtors in this County and City did not get the County allowance of bread as Felons do. At my visit in October last, I remonstrated with the Inspectors on the severity of this distinction, and prevailed on the County Inspector to distribute to six very poor Debtors, whose friends lived at a considerable distance from town. This kind practice he has continued. The Inspector over the City Prisoners, gave sensible reasons for not complying with my desire, but said a charitable society, established in Limerick, took the poor Debtors into their care, compounded their debts, and relieved them by weekly donations of money. 141 Prisoners were tried at both Assizes; 18 were convicted, 5 capitally, 4 of whom were executed. – 43 Crown Prisoners and 16 Debtors were in custody on 1st January 1808."
At the time there were two gaols in Limerick - the County Gaol for people who were committed for crimes in the county outside Limerick city and the City Gaol for people committed for crimes in the city. The two were merged when the new gaol was built in the 1810s.[Wikipedia, Architects of the Limerick Athenaeum, State of the Prisons of Ireland for 1807, Ire-Limerick Archives] The Old Sydney Gaol was bounded by George, Essex and Harrington Streets. In 1796 Governor Hunter ordered the construction of Sydney's first formal gaol. Built of logs on a stone footing with a thatched roof on the corner of what would become George & Essex Streets, the gaol was surrounded by a high fence and also included a brick debtors prison. The gaol opened in 1797 and only survived 2 years, burning down in 1799. Construction then began on a replacement stone gaol, which was completed by the following year. In 1823 the following description was given of the gaol:
"The Sydney Gaol is situated in one of the principal streets called George Street and upon the declivity of a rugged and rocky hill that overlooks the harbour of Sydney Cove. The entrance from the street is through a courtyard 97 by 34 feet, in which there are two small lodges, one for the gaoler's office and the other for the confinement of misdemeanants. On one side of the courtyard is a place of deposit for wood and coals, and a house for the under gaoler; and at the other is a separate courtyard 71 feet by 20, with a wooden building at the upper end, containing two small rooms for the separate confinement of female prisoners. The principal building stands on a raised terrace, to which there is a steep and inconvenient stair case, and it is divided by a passage of 10 feet into two apartments that measure 32 feet by 22. In these rooms there are fire-places and raised wooden platforms upon which the prisoners sleep. The walls of these rooms, as well as the wooden platforms and the floors, have been much damaged, although they have been frequently repaired. The yard behind the gaol is 16 5 feet in 1ength by 79 in breadth, is well flagged and contains a pump that affords a good supply of water; at the upper end is the building that is appropriated to the debtors containing two rooms, one of which is 28 feet by 12 and divided into two bedrooms, and the other is 28 feet by 17; on the same side, and in front of the yard, two rooms have been lately appropriated for the women, each 27 feet by 18, and in which two fireplaces have been constructed there are three cells at each end of the principal building for the confinement of prisoners under sentence of death, or condemned to solitary confinement."
The whole site was enclosed by a perimeter wall. In 1835 a report noted the 'insecure and dilapidated state of the present buildings'. As a result of overcrowding the gaol afforded no proper facilities for exercise or the segregation of different classes of prisoners. At one time in 1834 there were 326 prisoners, including 62 females and eight children confined in one small room alone. The report recommended that a new gaol be constructed, which was finally opened in 1841 & the prisioners remaining at the old gaol were then moved to the new gaol at Darlinghurst. By 1850 the old gaol had been demolished and the site was then a vacant block of land.[Old Sydney Gaol Excavation - Pat Burritt] Parramatta Female Factory. The 'Female Factory' was the destination of all convict women transported to the colony who had not been assigned as servants. Australia's first Female Factory, the Factory above the Gaol was located in what is now Prince Alfred Park, Parramatta, New South Wales. It was a simple log walled and thatched roof construction built in 1796 and used primarily as a place of confinement for convict re-offenders. The original construction burnt down and was replaced with a two storey stone building in 1802. This building was also damaged in a fire and again rebuilt in 1804 during Governor King's administration. The upper floor of the gaol was used as a place of confinement for delinquents and a house of industry for female convicts known as the Factory above the Gaol and later the Female Factory. Within a decade there was considerable pressure on the authorities to deal with increasing numbers of female convicts who could not be adequately accommodated at the Factory but it was not until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie that a solution was found. Macquarie selected a 4-acre site on the opposite bank of the Parramatta River from the Governor's Domain to build a new Factory and issued instructions to convict architect Francis Greenway to design a building that would accommodate 300 women. The Factory was built using convict labour from locally quarried sandstone and was completed in 1821 at the cost of 4778 pounds. The walls of the main building ranged from 2' 6" at the foundation to 20" at the apex of its three storeys. It had an oak shingled roof, floors of 6" paving or stringbark with barred leadlight windows in the basement and lead glazed windows on the upper floors. The first floor was used for meals with the top two floors for sleeping. The porter, deputy superintendent, superintendent and matron were provided separate accommodation on the site. The Factory was often referred to as the Nunnery and served as a refuge, a gaol, an asylum, a home for the infirm, a labour exchange, a marriage bureau, a hospital and a manufactory. In 1821 Macquarie wrote describing the Factory:
"A Large Commodious handsome stone Built Barrack and Factory, three Stories high, with Wings of one Story each for the accomodation and residence of 300 Female Convicts, with all requisite Out-offices including Carding, Weaving and Loom Rooms, Work-Shops, Stores for Wool, Flax etc. etc.; Quarters for the Superintendant, and also a large Kitchen Garden for the use of the Female Convicts, and Bleaching Ground for Bleaching the Cloth and Linen Manufactured; the whole of the Buildings and said Grounds, consisting of about Four acres, being enclosed with a high Stone Wall and Moat or Wet Ditch."
Originally intended as a place of refuge for the women and children of the NSW colony, within a decade it became more like a conventional prison. In 1825 the editor of the Sydney Gazette wrote the following about the 'factory':
"The female prisoners in the Factory at Parramatta, are, by the present regulations, divided into three classes. The second and third of these are penal, and into one of which, as the case may be, are sent all those assigned servants who conduct themselves in any wise improperly in their respective employments: the first class nevertheless being attainable by those whose conduct evidences a dispostion towards amendment. The arrangements are as follows: First Class: Spinning and Carding, a proportion of the profits arising from which is paid to the women, and from this class only can they be assigned, after working their way through the third and second classes. Second Class: The second class is employed at the same work, but cannot be assigned. Third Class: The third class is kept to hard labour, such as moving earth, breaking stones, &c, and is also deprived of tea and sugar. By these regulations, while punishment is awarded to aberrations from propriety, the door is still left open to those who manifest a tendency to improvement. But we must entirely dissent from the propriety of withholding tea and sugar, those least but most essential comforts. Women are still women, and however destitute of moral principle they may be, yet their vileness of conduct might be punished some other way, equally effective with that of giving them mere bread and water! This is a system parallel with corporal punishment, and the sooner abandoned the better. Keep them to hard labour - use them every way rigidly, but give the unfortunate women their tea and sugar."
The Factory was the site of Australia's first industrial action in 1827 when women rioted for better food and conditions. It was also the site of the colony's first manufactured export producing 60,000 yards of woven cloth in 1822. By 1842 the Factory accommodated 1,203 women in the most deplorable conditions, riots occurred frequently and reforms were called for which resulted in the cessation of solitary confinement and alterations to the main building. With the end of convict transportation to the NSW colony the site was reassigned as a Convict Lunatic and Invalid Asylum in 1847.[Wikipedia, Gordon Family History, Sydney Gazette 8/12/1825]
Glebe is an inner-city suburb of Sydney located 3 km SW of the Sydney central business district. Glebe surrounds Blackwattle Bay, an inlet of Sydney Harbour, in the north. The suburb of Ultimo lies to the east and the suburbs of Annandale and Forest Lodge lie to the west. The southern boundary is formed by Parramatta Road and Broadway. Broadway is a locality around the road of the same name, which is located on the border of Glebe, Chippendale and Ultimo. Glebe's name derives from the fact that the land on which it was developed was a glebe, originally owned by the Anglican Church. 'The Glebe' was a land grant of 400 acres given by Governor Arthur Phillip to Reverend Richard Johnson, Chaplain of the First Fleet, in 1790. Financial difficulty forced the church to sell some of its land by 1856 and a two strata society began to develop: the homes of the gentry were built on Glebe Point while many workers lived at The Glebe. Gradually the big estates on the point were subdivided and the professional and middle income groups changed The Glebe from a quiet peninsula into a fashionable suburb. During the early 20th century and especially during the Depression years, The Glebe deteriorated and became shabby and overcrowded.[Wikipedia, Glebe Society]
 
   
   

1.1. Henry Howell (s/o Samuel), born c.1794,[4,250] Port Jackson, NSW, Australia.[250] Died 1831, burial registered St James, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (37yo).[4] Baker, 1822, 1825.[425,556] Housekeeper/householder, 1825, 1828.[425] In 1820 was employed by Riley & Sons, Merchants.[556] On 28/4/1821 Henry was advertised as receiving a grant of land.[453] Henry's land grant, in the district of St George, County of Cumberland, was described in detail shortly before his death:
  "The following descriptions of Grants of Land in the County of Cumberland, with the names of the Persons to whom they were respectively promised, are published tor general information, in order that all parties concerned may have an opportunity of correcting any errors and omissions which may have been made inadvertently:-And Notice is hereby given, that at the end of one month from the present date, unless written Caveats be previously lodged in this Office, Deeds of Grant will be prepared accordingly, in the Form published in the Government Notice of 10th September, 1830. It is requested that all christian and surnames may be communicated to this Office at full length, together with the intended name of the property.
17. Henry Howell, 60, sixty acres; bounded on the west by a line north 35 degrees west 20 chains commencing at Brocker's north west corner; on the north by a line east 35 degrees north 32 chains; on the east by a line south 35 degrees east 20 chains; and on the south by a line west 35 degrees south 32 chains-promised by Governor Macquarie on the 31st March, 1821; Quit rent, 1s sterling per per aunnum, commencing 1st Jan, 1827.(Herald 3/10/1831)"[452]
 
View along Kent Street, c.1852
View along Kent Street, c.1852
Watercolour - Artist unknown
In 1822 made an application for position of Boatswain of the Row Guard Boat.[556] On 21/2/1822, then of Kent Street, was on the list of persons receiving an assigned convict.[556] On 26/4/1823 made an application for a victualling order.[556] On 1/7/1823 Henry aquired a town allotment on Kent Street, Sydney.[456] On 1/11/1825, then a baker of Kent Street, was on the list of persons liable to serve as jurors in the district of Sydney.[556] Married Mary Hill, 3/4/1815, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Mary born c.1797,[4] Port Jackson, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[250] & died 16/7/1854,[4,460] Kent Street North, Sydney,[457,460] & burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (57yo).[4]
"On the 16th instant, at her residence, Kent-street, North, Mary, relict of the late Mr. Henry Howell, aged 57, leaving a circle of friends to mourn their loss.(Empire 18/7/1854)"[460]
Published 30/9/1831 was a Notification of a Deed of Grant in the district of St George for "Mary Howell, 60, sixty acres; described as No. 17 in the Government Notice of 19th September, 1831, in the name of Henry Howell.(Herald 10/10/1831)"[450] Mary received the grant the following year.[451] On 2/6/1834 Mary was advertised as having possession of two parcels of land on Kent Street, Sydney, one of which Mary & her deceased husband had occupied since 1818:
"No. 426. By Mary Howell, widow, Kent-street, Sydney, to a piece or parcel of land, claimed by a possession for sixteen years, described as follows: situate in Kent-street, Sydney, bounded on the north by the premises of the memorialist, on the south by Wm. Carter to Mr. Moore, on the east by Kent-street, and on the west by George Smith.
No. 427. By Mary Howell, widow, Kent-street, Sydney, to a piece or parcel of land, promised to George Hasely, described as follows : sítuate in Kent- street, township of Sydney, parish of St. Philip, county of Cumberland, described as follows: bounded on the north by premises of Wm. Thorn, on the east by Kent-street, on the south by premises of memorialists, and on the west by premises of Smith.(Herald 2/6/1834)"[454]
Clarence Street, Sydney. 1873
Clarence Street, Sydney. 1873
Watercolour - Samuel Elyard
On 3/3/1835 Mary was published as holding a town allotment on Kent Street, Sydney, in the parish of St Philip:
"16. Mary Howell, Twenty six and a half perches; bounded on the east by Kent-Street bearing north 15 degrees 30 minutes west 82 3/4 links; on the north by allotment No 17 bearing west 12 degrees south 68 links, then south 16 degrees east 6 links then west 11 degrees 30 minutes south 141 links; on the west by allotment No 8 bearing south 1 degree east 40 1/4 link then south 20 degrees east 35 link; and on the south, by allotments Nos 9 and 15 bearing east 14 degrees north 33 links, then east 10 degrees 30 minutes north 190 links. Quit-rent 13s 3d per annum, commencing July 1, 1823.(Gazette 7/3/1835)"[456]
On 3/8/1837 Mary advertised for a wet nurse:
"A wet nurse immediately, she must have a character for honesty and sobriety. Apply at Mrs. Mary Howel, No. 28, Kent street, Sydney. August 3rd., 1837.(Monitor 11/8/1837)"[455]
On 2/12/1839 Mary appeared in court testifying that her clerk had stolen £11 and some change from her:
"George Springgett was charged with embezzling money. Mrs Mary Howell of Kent-street, deposed, that the prisoner was her Clerk and Collector. She owed Mr. Campbell the cheesemonger eleven pounds and she gave prisoner two pounds eight shillings, and desired him to receive fron Mr. Sterling, grocer, eight pounds twelve shillings, which would make the eleven pounds. He had received the money of Mr. Sterling, but had not paid Mr Campbell. Remanded for tomorrow.(Monitor 2/12/1839)"[459]
On 26/4/1848 Mary advertised for a lost cow:
"Ten Shillings Reward. Stolen or strayed, yesterday morning, from Mr. George Hill's Paddock, above Lyons Terrace, one milch cow, black with white streak down the back, and branded JP on the off side ribs, with long and open horns. Whoever will give such intelligence as will lead to her restoration, will receive the above reward. Any person found detaining the same after this notice, will be prosecuted. Mary Howell, Next door to the City Inn, Kent-street. Sydney, April 25.(SMH 26/4/1848)"[458]
Between 1845-1852 Mary was listed as a land owner in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
In 1845 Mary owned a house with sheds at the rear on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by Thomas Penington, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571] In 1845 Mary owned a house with sheds & kitchen at the rear on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by her son, George Howell, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571] In 1845 Mary owned a shop on Clarence Street, Sydney, tennanted by John Egan, having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571] In 1845 Mary owned a shop on Clarence Street, Sydney, tennanted by Henry Greatres, having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571]
In 1845 Mary owned a shop on Clarence Street, Sydney, tennanted by Michael McGee, having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571] {Mary was not listed as a tenant in 1845, suggesting she may have been living with George - the Assessments only listed the head of the household}
In 1848 Mary was the owner-occupier of a house with a detached kitchen at No.510 Kent Street, Sydney, having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £15.[571] In 1848 Mary owned a house at No.511 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by Robert Chubb, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £6.[571] {From the description the property tenanted by Thomas Penington in 1845} In 1848 Mary owned a Public House with a detached store & 2 small sheds at No.512 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by William Wolstonecroft, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £60.[571] In 1848 Mary owned a house with 2 sheds attached at No.516 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by William Wolstonecroft, having 1 floor, 1 room, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £7.[571] In 1848 Mary owned a house with attached kitchen at No.84 Bourke Street, Woolloomooloo, Sydney, tennanted by John Evans, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £32.[571]
In 1851 & 1852 Mary owned a house on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by James Prescott, built of stone with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £65.[571] In 1851 & 1852 Mary owned a house on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by John Haslett, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £9.[571] In 1851 & 1852 Mary owned a house on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by Martin Quin (or Ruin), built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £10.[571] In 1851 & 1852 Mary owned a house on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by James Clarke, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £10.[571] In 1851 & 1852 Mary owned a house on Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by her son, Alexander Howell, built of wood with a shingled roof, no rate assessment listed.[571]
Resided 1818-1835, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[454,456,457,556] Resided 1837, No.28 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[455] Resided 1839, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[459] Resided 1848, Next door to the City Inn, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[458] Resided 1854, Kent Street North, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[457,460]

Children of Henry Howell & Mary Hill:
i.
 
Ann Howell, baptised 1815, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[250]
ii.

Sarah Howell, baptised 1818,[4,205] St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
iii.

William H. Howell, baptised 1820,[4,205] St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1835 & burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (15yo).[4]
  "On Saturday a Coroner's Inquest was held at Mr. Hill's, in Park-street, on the body of William Howell, a boy about 13 years of age, who, it may be remembered, was severely beaten a short time back, by Jeremiah Lynch, or Nitch, alias 'flash Jerry.' The evidence very much varied, and the prisoner was, in consequence, acquitted of the charge, with a very salulary admonition from the Coroner, who hoped he would never lift his hand again on a similar occasion.(Sydney Gazette 28/7/1835)"[446]
"Jeremiah Lynch, alias Flash Jerry, was put to the bar under the following circumstances :-Thomas Smithers, a boy of the age of twelve years, deposed that about six weeks ago, he remembered accompanying a youth named William Howell to church, on a Sunday morning; going up King street, they met the prisoner, when the boy Howell called after him, there goes " Flash Jerry," on which the prisoner ran after him, and on overtaking him, gave him several blows on the side of his head; they did not appear to be hard blows; when the prisoner went away, Howell said he had struck him on the face, and he was afraid he should have a black eye; deponent accompanied him to church, where they remained during the service; he did not complain of being unwell, there were more boys about at the time the blows were given, but no men; there were no more than four or five blows. Mrs. Howell, the mother of the boy Howell, deposed that she remembered about five weeks ago that her son complained of extreme pain in his jaw and throat; it appeared swelled, as if from the toothache, it was much discoloured, and in answer to interrogatories on the subject, he said he had been beaten on the previous day by a man; he did not complain of the injury on the day it was inflicted; deponent first heard of it on the following morning, it did not seem to be serious at first, but increased; at night the child complained of being very bad; he continued to get worse for nine or ten days, when he died from the effect of the bruises on his head and throat. The prisoner expressed extreme sorrow for the unfortunate transaction, and was committed for trial.(Sydney Herald 6/8/1835)"[447]

 
iv.

George Howell, baptised 1822,[4,205] St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 18/11/1890, 83 Goulburn Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia (68yo).[4,148,461] "Howell - November 18, at 83 Goulborn-street, near Pitt-street, George Howell, aged 67 years.(SMH 1/12/1890)"[461]
  "The Mayor reported the receipt of an intimation of the death of Mr. George Howell, clerk of the markets. He said he understood that the demise had only just taken place. He believed that Mr. Howell was an officer who had served the council faithfully for many years, and he was sure that the aldermen sympathised with his widow. It was resolved that a letter of sympathy be sent.(SMH 19/11/1890)"[462]  
Buried Old Church of England Section CC, Row 22, plot 1052-1053, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Clerk of the markets.[462]
Between 1845-1891 George was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1845 George tennanted a house with sheds & kitchen at the rear on Kent Street, Sydney, owned by his mother, Mary Howell, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571]
In 1851 & 1852 George tennanted a house on Cambridge Street, The Rocks, Sydney, owned by Mr/Mrs Wright, built of stone with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £13.[571]
In 1858 George owned a house at No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by his brother, Alexander Howell,having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571] In 1858 George owned a house at 1 off (possibly a lane?) No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by Charles Williams, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571] In 1858 George owned a house at 2 off (possibly a lane?) No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by McMurray, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £20.[571] In 1858 George owned a house at 3 off (possibly a lane?) No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by Mark Gillham, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571] In 1858 George owned a house at 4 off (possibly a lane?) No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, unoccupied by a tennant, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571] In 1858 George owned a house at 5 off (possibly a lane?) No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by Richard Gardener, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571] In 1858 George owned a Public House at No.311 Kent Street, Sydney, tennanted by his brother-in-law, Walter Kippie, having 3 floors, 9 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £130.[571]
In 1867 George tennanted a house & shop at No.121 King Street, Sydney, owned by John J. Kettle, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £112.[571]
In 1877 George tennanted a house at No.315 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, owned by Mrs T. Johnstone, having 2 floors, 7 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £46.[571]
In 1880 George tennanted a house at No.271 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, owned by Mrs Johnson, having 2 floors, 8 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571]
In 1882 George tennanted a house at No.83 Goulburn Street, Sydney, owned by Dr Lebuis, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick & stone with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £57.[571]
In 1891 George (or his estate) tennanted a house at No.83 Goulburn Street, Sydney, owned by Dr Leibens, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick & stone with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £57.[571]
 
Married Elizabeth Scource, 1851, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Elizabeth, d/o Thomas, died 1917, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1845, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1851, 1852, Cambridge Street, The Rocks, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1867, No.121 King Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1877, No.315 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1880, No.271 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1882, 1890, 1891, No.83 Goulburn Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[461,571]
Children: (a)
 
Sarah Charlotte Howell, baptised 1853, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married William Charles Burge, 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] William, s/o William & Harriet, died 1897, Hunters Hill, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd Robert Stone, 1901, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
William John Burge, born 1879, Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1952, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
George Albert Burge, born 1880, Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alice R. Bell, 1918, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Thomas Henry Burge, born 1882, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1964, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alice McGivern, 1910, Hunters Hill, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Robert James Burge, born 1883, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1971, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Ada B. M. Graham, 1907, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Elizabeth O. Burge, born 1885, Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married William A. Kidd, 1916, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(6) Violet M. Burge, born 1888, Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Sidney P. McKenzie, 1915, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(7) Blanche L. Burge, born 1896, Drummoyne, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1899, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
v.

Harriet Howell, baptised 1824,[4,205] St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (mother listed as Sarah).[4] Died 1908, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {parents listed as William & Mary on the index, William may refer either to her deceased husband, or her son. Obituary details confirm it is the right Harriet} Buried 7/4/1908, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[553]
23-27 Ada Place, Ultimo
23-27 Ada Place, Ultimo
Photo - Google StreetView
"Keppie - The friends of Mr and Mrs W. Brydon are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of their late dearly beloved mother, Mrs Harriett Keppie; to leave her residence, 66 Arundel street, Forest Lodge, this afternoon, at 1.30 for the Necropolis. Coffill & Company.
Keppie - The Friends of Mr and Mrs G Skinner are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of their late dearly loved mother, Mrs Harnett Keppie, to leave 66 Arundel street, Forest Lodge, this afternoon at 1.30 for the Necropolis. Coffill & Company.
Keppie -The friends of William and George Keppie are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of their dear mother; to leave her daughter's residence, 66 Arundel street, Forest Lodge, this day at 1.30 for the Necropolis.
Keppie - The Friends of Mr and Mrs A Blundell are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of their late beloved mother, Harriet Keppie, to leave her daughter's residence, 66 Arundel street, Forest Lodge, this (Tuesday) afternoon, at 1.30 for Necropolis. Coffill & Co Undertakers.
Officers & Members of the Good Intent Division, Sons and Daughters of Temperance, are respectfully requested to attend the funeral of late sister Harriet Keppie; to move from her late residence, 66 Arundel street, Forest Lodge, this (Tuesday) afternoon, 1.30 for Necropolis. M. J. Gunning W.P., J. Byrne R.S.(SMH 7/4/1908)"[553]
Married Walter William Keppie, 1846, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Walter, s/o William & Mary Ann, died 1890, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Buried 27/3/1890, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[476]
"The friends of the late Mr. Walter William Harriet Keppie, Engineer, are respectfully invited to attend his Funeral; to move from his late residence, 25 Ada-street, Ultimo, this (Thursday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o'clock, for Necropolis. Wood and Company. Undertakers. 799 George-street Sydney.
The friends of Messrs. Wm. and Geo. Keppie are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of their late beloved father; to move from No 25 Ada street. Ultimo, this (Thursday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o'clock, for Necropolis. Wood and Company, Undertakers 799 George street, Sydney, Balmain, Petersham.
The friends of William Bryden are invited to attend the Funeral of his deceased father-in-law, Walter William Harriet Keppie; to move from his late residence, 25 Ada-street, Ultimo, this (Thursday) afternoon, at 1.30 p.m.
The friends of Messrs. John Duffin, Alfred Blundell, and William Collins are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of their late beloved father-in-law, Wm. W. H. Keppie: to move from 25 Ada-street, Ultimo, this (Thursday) afternoon, at half past 1 o'clock, for Necropolis. Wood and Company.(SMH 27/3/1890)"[476]
{I have so far been unable to identify which of Walter's daughters was the spouse of William Bryden. Bryden is not listed on the funeral notice for Mary Ann Wright in 1877, implying that he married Walter's daughter between 7/3/1877 and 27/3/1890. The only marriage for a William Bryden in this time period was to Elizabeth Catherine Wormald, 1877, Redfern. Elizabeth, d/o James, died 1889, Waterloo. William then appears to have married Eleanor, however I have been unable to find a marriage nor a death for Eleanor to identify her maiden name &/or parents}
On 24/12/1856 Walter Kippie was granted a license to operate the City Inn, Kent Street (SMH 25/12/1856).[474] {Note that in 1848 Walter's mother-in-law, Mary Howell, was living next door to the City Inn}
On 12/5/1858, Walter Kippie, publican, pleaded guilty in the Central Police Court to an information for keeping open house on Sunday, and was fined. 10s (SMH 13/5/1858).[470]
In 1858 the owners of the City Inn, then leased by Walter, advertised sale of the inn by auction {since Walter continued to operate the inn presumably either the sale did not eventuate or the new owner renewed Walter's lease}:
"Sale by Auction - Kent-Street, on the west side, about midway between King and Erskine Streets. Lot 1-That well-known public-house, known as The City Inn, now in the occupation of Mr. Walter Kippie. This house is built of brick on stone foundations, cemented back and front, and contains on the ground floor, which is level with the street, bar and bar parlour, on the first floor landing, and two rooms; on the second floor, 3 rooms and a large attic above; store-room, yard, with water alid on &c, at the rear. The City Inn is now let at the reduced rent of £3 10s. per week. It is a most substantial building, in a thorough state of repair, and doing a flourishing business, which, from its position, it will always secure.(Empire 14/8/1858)"[475]
On 4/10/1859, Walter Kippie, publican, was fined 10s in the Central Police Court, with 3s 6d costs, for having opened his home for purposes of trade on Sunday (SMH 5/10/1859).[469]
On 10/2/1860, Walter Kippie, publican, found guilty in the Central Police Court of keeping open his house during prohibited hours, was fined 10s. and costs.(SMH 11/2/1860)"[472]
In March 1862 Walter Kippie, publican, of Kent-street, was declared insolvent with liabilities of £430 1s 10d and assets of £59 5s, and his estate surrendered (SMH 21/3/1862).[473]
Publican, 1856-1862.[469,470,472,473,474,475,570] Engineer, 1877,1890.[468,476] Resided 1856-1862, 311 City Inn, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[469,470,472,473,474,475,570] Between 1845-1901 Walter & Harriett were listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
In 1851 & 1852 Walter tennanted a house on Kent Street, Sydney, owned by Arthur Little, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £23.[571]
In 1858 Walter tennanted a Public House at No.311 Kent Street, Sydney, owned by George Howell, having 3 floors, 9 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £130.[571]
In 1861 Walter tennanted a Public House at No.311 Kent Street, Sydney, owned by L & S Samuel, having 3 floors, 9 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £180.[571]
In 1871 Walter tennanted a house at No.4 Margaret Street, Sydney, owned by Charles Jeannerett, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £31.[571]
In 1877 Walter tennanted a house at No.4 Dixon Street East, Sydney, owned by Thomas O'Neil, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick & stone with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £36.[571]
In 1880 Walter tennanted a house at No.8 Miles Street, Sydney, owned by Mary Rose, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £41.[571]
In 1882 Walter tennanted a house at No.33 Ada Street, Sydney, owned by John McDonald, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £33.[571]
In 1891 Harriet tennanted a house at No.25 Ada Lane West Side, Sydney, owned by John McDonald, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £36.[571]
In 1896 Harriet tennanted a house at No.23 Ada Street, Sydney, owned by St Joseph's Building Society, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £27.[571]
In 1901 Harriet tennanted a house at No.23 Ada Street, Sydney, owned by St Joseph's Building Society, with an assessed annual value of £21.[571]
Resided 1851, 1852, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1858, 1862, No.311 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1867, Sussex-street, near Market-street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[471] Resided 1869, Market Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[466] Resided 1871, No.4 Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1874, Burnett Street, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[465,467] Resided 1877, No.4 Dixon Street East, Haymarket, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1880, No.8 Miles Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1882, No.33 Ada Street, Ultimo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1890,1891, No.25 Ada Street, Ultimo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[476,571] Resided 1896, 1901, No.33 Ada Street, Ultimo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1908, No.66 Arundel street, Forest Lodge, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[553]
Children: (a)
 
Mary Ann Kippie, baptised 1847, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1877, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Buried 7/3/1877, Balmain Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[468]
  "The friends of Mr. William Collins are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved sister-in-law, Mrs. Mary A. Wright; to move from her late residence, 4, Dixon-street South, this afternoon, at 3 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery. C. Kinsela and Sons, Oxford-street and George-street.
The friends of Messrs. William and George Keppie are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of their late beloved sister, Mrs. Mary Ann Wright; to move from her late residence, No. 4, Dixon-street South, this (Wednesday) afternoon, at 3 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery. C. Kinsela and Sons.
The friends of Mr. John Duffin, Jun., are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved sister-in-law, Mrs. Mary Ann Wright; to move from her late residence, No. 4, Dixon-street South, this afternoon, at 3 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery. C. Kinsela and Sons, Oxford-street, near Crown-st.
The friends of Mr. Samuel Wright are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late, beloved wife, Mary Ann; to move from her late residence, No. 4, Dixon-street South, this (Wednesday) afternoon, at 3 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery. C. Kinsela and Sons, George-street, op. Christ Church.
The friends of Mr. Walter Keppie, Engineer, are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved daughter, Mrs. Mary A. Wright; to move from her late residence, No. 4, Dixon-street South, this (Wednesday) afternoon, at 3 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery. C. Kinsela and Sons, George-street.(SMH 7/3/1877)"[468]
 
Married Samuel Walton Wright, 1868, Sydney, NSW, Australia (listed as Kippee).[4] Resided 1877, No.4 Dixon Street South, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[468]
Children: (1)
 
Samuel W. Wright, born 1870, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1919, Granville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Oliver Everett Wright, born 1872, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1913, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Mary J. Doran, 1905, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Herbert Henry Wright, born 1875, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1936, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Jane Parker, 1901, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd Mary A. Sheey, 1906, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Archibald James Wright, born 1877, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1949, Hurstville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Beatrice M. Lewis, 1899, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd Rose E. Jones, 1904, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b) Sarah Keppie, baptised 1849, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia ('Sippie').[4] Died 2/8/1902, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia (d/o Walter & Harriett).[4,477] Buried 3/8/1902.[478]
  "Mrs. Sarah Collins, at one time hostess of the Junction Inn, Tumbulgum, and later of the Court-house Hotel, Murwillumbah, died on Saturday, aged 53.(Clarence Examiner 2/8/1902)"[477]
"Death of an Old Resident. On Saturday afternoon, after a long and painful illness Mrs Sarah Collins died at her residence, Murwillumbah at the age of 52 years. She was well known throughout the Tweed River district of which she had been a resident for about eighteen years. With her late husband, Mr W Collins, who died about six years ago, she opened the Junction Hotel, Tumbulgum, in 1884. The late Mr Collins always took an active part in public matters, and founded the first Oddfellows' lodge and first Masonic lodge in the Tweed district. In 1889 Mr and Mrs Collins removed to Murwillumbah and opened the Court House Hotel which has always been one of our leading hotels. Prior to Mr Collins's decease the 
Court House Hotol passed out of their hands, but a couple of years ago Mrs Collins took over the hotel again and conducted it until a few months ago, when her health compelled her to retire from business. The funeral took place on Sunday and was largely attended by all classes of the community. The Rev L. Nye conducted a short service in the local Church of England, to which the body was conveyed from its late home, and also celebrated the last solemn rites at the grave. The deceased leaves nine children. The cause of death was dropsy.(Brisbane Courier 4/8/1902)"[478]
 
Married William Collins, 7/4/1869, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,466]
  "On the 7th instant, by the Rev. Dr. Fullerton, L.L.D., William, eldest son of Thomas Collins, of Erskine-street, to Sarah, second daughter of Walter Keppie, of Market-street.(SMH 14/4/1869)"[466]  
William died 1896, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia (Northern Star 29/8/1896).[479]
Children: (1)
 
Ada A. Collins, born 1871, Balmain, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Henry H. Collins, born 1872, Balmain, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1928, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) William Walter Thomas Collins, born 1874, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1949, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Alfred E. Collins, born 1877, St George, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1928, Taree, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Henrietta Collins, born 1879, St George, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(6) Evan John Collins, born 1880, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(7) Stella S. Collins, born 1882, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(8) Eliza I. Collins, born 1887, Tweed River, NSW, Australia.[4]
(9) Percy C. G. Collins, born 1889, Tweed River, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c)
Henrietta Keppie, baptised 1851, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1903, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married John Duffin, 1871, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Henrietta E. Duffin, born 1871, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1885, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Florence Duffin, born 1872, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Benjamin R. Denking, 1899, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Albert Boyne Duffin, born 1874, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1935, Wyong, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Emily V. I. West, 1904, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Walter Ernest Duffin, born 1875, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1931, Five Dock, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Fanny L. Hollingdale, 1901, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Harriet E. Duffin, born 1877, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(6) Richard H. Duffin, born 1878, St George, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(7) John Duffin, born 1885, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1899, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(8) George W. Duffin, born 1886, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1918, Goulburn, NSW, Australia.[4]
(9) Edith P. Duffin, born 1887, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) William Keppie, baptised 1854, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1925, Balmain South, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Between 1891-1921 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1891 William tennanted a shop at No.55-57 Sussex Street, Sydney, owned by M. Gray, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick & stone with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £170.[571]
In 1897 William tennanted a shop at No.55-57 Sussex Street, Sydney, owned by the estate of M. Gray, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £156.[571]
In 1907 William tennanted a shop & house at No.55 Sussex Street, Sydney, owned by the NSW Govt (Harbour Trust), having 2 floors, 3 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £58 (at Erskine Street).[571]
In 1911 William tennanted a shop at No.9 Erskine Street, Sydney, owned by the Government of New South Wales (Harbour Trust), having 2 floors, 3 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £28 (at Day Street).[571]
In 1914 William tennanted a shop at No.19 Erskine Street, Sydney, owned by the Government of New South Wales (Harbour Trust), having 1 floor, 1 room, built of brick with an assessed annual value of £65.[571]
In 1921 William tennanted a shop at No.19 Erskine Street, Sydney, owned by the Government of New South Wales (Harbour Trust), having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of brick with iron roof and an assessed annual value of £65.[571]
 
(e) Harriet Keppie, baptised 1855, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1921, Annandale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alfred Blundell, 1881, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Walter Richard Blundell, born 1882, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1965, Manly, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Lillian I. Smith, 1907, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Alfred Ernest Blundell, born 1884, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1971, Burwood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alice Maud Callaway, 1914, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Alice, d/o John & Emily, died 1970, Liverpool, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) George Howell Blundell, born 1886, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1972, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Augusta Frazer, 1911, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Florence Henrietta Blundell, born 1888, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1968, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Leslie Blundell, born 1890, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Stella B. Barrett, 1913, St Peters, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(6) Ada S. A. Blundell, born 1893, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Henry J. Stoddart, 1925, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) George Keppie, born 1857, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1917, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Matilda Daniells, 1898, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Matilda, d/o John & Eliza, died 1900, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) Walter Kippie, baptised 1859, St Andrew's Scots Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 7/10/1874, Burnett Street, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] "Keppie - October 7, at his parents' residence, Burnett-street, Redfern, Walter, the beloved son of Mr. Walter Keppie, aged 15 years.(SMH 9/10/1874)"[467] Buried 10/10/1874, Balmain Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[465]
  "The friends of William Keppie are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late departed brother, Walter Keppie; to move from his late residence, Burnett-street, Redfern, on Saturday afternoon, at half-past 2 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery.
The friends of William Collins, Hairdresser, are invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved brother-in-law, Walter Keppie; to move from his late residence, Burnett-street, Redfern, on Saturday afternoon, at half-past 2 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery.(SMH 9/10/1874)"[465]

 
Resided 1874, Burnett Street, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[465,467]
(h) Elizabeth Kippie, born 1861, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1933, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married George Skinner, 1886, Tweed River, NSW, Australia.[4] George, s/o Henry & Isabel, died 1933, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Henry Skinner, born 1887, Tweed River, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1962, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Jessie M. Wilcock, 1911, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
George Walter Skinner, born 1888, Tweed River, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1974NSW, Australia.[4] Married Marian E. Kelly, 1915, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd Vera M. A. Scott, 1925, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Arthur W. SKinner, born 1890, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1892, Tweed RiverNSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Frank C. Skinner, born 1891, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Gladys M. E. Grant, 1914, BallinaNSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Charlotte A. Skinner, born 1894, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married George Grantham, 1916, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(6) Victor Skinner, born 1895, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(7) Elizabeth Skinner, born 1904, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married John W. Morley, 1924, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(8) Thelma Skinner, born 1906, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Stewart R. Park, 1933, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(i) Henry Kippie, born 1863, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1867, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
  "The Friends of Mr. Walter Kippie are invited to attend the funeral of his deceased son, Henry, on Sunday afternoon [14th]; the procession to move from his residence, Sussex-street, near Market-street, at 3 o'clock.(SMH 13/7/1867)"[471]  
(j) Ann Keppie, born 1865, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
* vi.
David Howell, baptised 1827,[4,205] St James, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
* vii.
Alexander Howell, baptised 1830, St James, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]

   
Cambridge Street, The Rocks, 1867
Cambridge Street, The Rocks, 1867

Watercolour - Samuel Elyard
Medieval Pins
George Howell playing cricket for NSW,
Melbourne Cricket Ground, 1858

Lithograph - Henry Heath Glover
King Street, Sydney, 1892
King Street, Sydney, 1892

Photograph - Fred Hardie
  Grand Intercolonial Cricket Match, played between Victoria & New South Wales on the Melbourne Ground, January 12, 13, & 14, 1858. Victorian Players were J. M. Bryant, T. F. Wray, G. Elliott, G. Marshall, W. Hammersley, G. Pickering, T. W. Wills, T. F. Morres, W. L. Rees, T. Hamilton, B. Butterworth and C. F. Cameron (Umpire). NSW Players were H. Hilliard, G. (George) Howell, J. L. Beeston, G. Gilbert, J. McKone, N. Thomson, O. Lewis, T. Lewis, J. Mills, R. Murray, R. Vaughan and W. Tunks (Umpire). Spectators included Joseph Huff, Sydney Booth & Richmond Booth.[State Library Victoria]
 
   
271-273 Elizabeth Street, 1922
271-273 Elizabeth Street, 1922
Photo - City of Sydney Demolition Books
Sydney Market, 1891
Sydney Market, 1891
Etching - William Sidman
Goulburn Street, Sydney, c.1875
Goulburn Street, Sydney, c.1875
Photographer unknown
   
St Andrew's Scots Church (1848)
St Andrew's Scots Church (1848)
Engraving - Joseph Fowles (National Library)
Kent Street, Sydney, 1860s
Kent Street, Sydney, 1860s
Photographer unknown
Medieval Pins
Cnr Sussex & Market Street's, c.1900
Photographer unknown
  The Scots' Church of St. Andrew's, more generally known as Dr. Lang's Church, stands on the southern extremity of Church Hill, near the entrance to the old Military Barracks, and in the immediate vicinity of the Episcopalian Church of St. Phillip's. It is a commodious and well finished building, and with the gallery capable of holding 1000 persons. This was the first Scots' Church erected in the Colony, for previous to the arrival of the Rev. Dr. Lang in 1823 there had not been a Presbyterian minister: he commenced his duties in the small chapel in Prince Street (now used by the Wesleyans), on the 8th June, in the same year, and continued to perform service according to the rites of the Scottish Church, in the same place of worship until the completion of the present edifice. Soon after his arrival in the Colony, a congregation of Scots' Presbyterians was formed, and shortly afterwards it was proposed to erect a Church in Sydney, and upwards of £700 was subscribed for that purpose in the course of a few days. Additional costs as well as Lang's salary were pad for by the Colonial Government. The final service was held in the church on 5/11/1911, after which the building was demolished and the church relocated to Rose Bay.[Sydney 1848, Organ Music Society of Sydney] City Inn. (Not to be confused with the City Inn currently trading on Kent Street) Bought c.1856 by George Howell & leased to Walter Kippie who operated a public house there from 1856-1862. Prior to Howell's purchase the property was a house & yard, tennanted by William McGuckin. By 1861 Howell had sold the property to L & S Samuel, who retained Walter Kippie as the tenant. In 1863 the Samuel's still owned the building, then operating as a public house under David Roberton. By 1867 the inn had closed and until at least 1877 the building operated variously as a shop &/or a private residence. By 1891 the building was a warehouse, which it remained until at least 1948.[571] Ultimo is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, located 2 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district. 'Ultimo' was originally the name of the estate of Dr John Harris, on 34 acres granted to him by Governor King in 1803. It was named for a clerical error in a legal case against Harris that had prevented him being court-martialled. His offence was listed as 'ultimo' (having occurred in the previous month) when it should have been cited as 'instant' (having occurred in the same month). Harris Street is named in his honour. The area remained as farmland, in possession of the Harris family, until it was subdivided in 1859. At that time, most of the current streets were laid out. Residential development accelerated in the 1880s. In 1891 the population of the Pyrmont-Ultimo area was 19,177, in 3,966 dwellings. The population peaked at around 30,000 in 1900. However, the construction of factories, quarries, woolstores and a power station in the early 20th century saw the demolition of hundreds of houses, and a steady decline in population. It was a good site for warehouses because of its proximity to Darling Harbour. By 1954, the population of Pyrmont and Ultimo was 5,000, and by 1978 it was just 1,800. By the start of the 1980s, derelict industrial sites began to be redeveloped for residences, mostly as apartments, a process that continues.[Wikipedia]  
     
Burnett Street, Redfern
Burnett Street, Redfern
Photograph - City of Sydney
Corner of Erskine & Day St's, Sydney, 1928
Corner of Erskine & Day St's, Sydney
Photograph - City of Sydney, 1928
Tumbulgum, c.1910
Tumbulgum, c.1910
Photographer unknown
  Tumbulgum is a town in northern New South Wales, Australia. The town is at the confluence of the Rous and Tweed Rivers, 818 kilometres north east of Sydney and 120 kilometres south east of Brisbane. At the 2006 census, Tumbulgum had a population of 349. The Australian Red Cedar growing in the Tumbulgum area attracted timber-cutters from the 1840s and by the early 1860s a small community and river port had been established on the northern side of the Tweed River where it met the Rous. The town was originally called "Tweed Junction" but in 1880 the residents petitioned to have the name changed to "Tumbulgum". This was claimed to mean "meeting place of the waters" in an Aboriginal language but others claimed translations include "a large fig" or "wild fig tree". By 1885, the town had mostly moved to the southern bank of the Tweed. In the 1880s Tumbulgum was the principal town in the Tweed Valley with an active commercial sector, including a bank. It was not until construction of the rail line to Lismore in 1897 and the Murwillumbah Bridge in 1901 that Murwillumbah supplanted Tumbulgum as the major centre on the Tweed. Tumbulgum is now an historic village with many historic buildings in the town, including the Tumbulgum Hotel.[Wikipedia]  
   
Court House Hotel, Murwillumbah
Court House Hotel, Murwillumbah
Photographer & date unknown
Main street of Murwillumbah, c.1905
Main street of Murwillumbah, c.1905
Photograph - William Higlett
Medieval Pins
___
Image - ___
  Murwillumbah is a town of approximately 7,500 people in far north-eastern New South Wales in the Tweed Shire. It lies on the Tweed River, 848 km north-east of Sydney, 13 km south of the Queensland border and 132 km south of Brisbane. At the 2006 census, Murwillumbah had a population of 7,952 people. Murwillumbah sits on the south eastern foothills of the McPherson Range in the Tweed Volcano valley. The area is quite hilly. The first people to live in the area were Bundjalung people. The name Murwillumbah derives from an Aboriginal word meaning "camping place" – from Murrie, meaning "aboriginal people", Wolli, "a camp"; and Bab, "the place of". Nearby Mount Warning and its attendant national park are known as Wollumbin, meaning "Cloud Catcher", in the Bundjalung language. Timber-getters were drawn to the region in the 1840s. The river port at Tumbulgum was initially the main settlement. In 1902, a local government municipality was declared with Murwillumbah as its centre. Most of the town's business district was destroyed by fire in 1907. Murwillumbah is the location for Australia’s largest-ever bank robbery which occurred in 1978 and has not been solved.[Wikipedia]  
     
     

1.2.  Maria Howell (d/o Samuel), born c.1796, Port Jackson, NSW, Australia.[250,432] Died 25/6/1861, Penrith, NSW, Australia (d/o Samuel & 'Maria', the later probably referring to her step-mother).[4,250,549]
  "On the 25th instant, at her residence, Penrith, Mrs. Maria Bruce, aged 71 years.(SMH 29/6/1861)"[549]  
In 1820 was a witness at the marriage of her sister, Hannah.[425] On 9/6/1841 Maria and her son, James, appeared as witnesses in the murder of Amelia Cook, who lived next door to the Howell's:
 
Cnr Clarence & Market Streets, 1875
Cnr Clarence & Market Streets, 1875
Photograph - City of Sydney
"Yesterday, an inquest was held at the Governor Bourke Public House, before Mr Brenan, Coroner for Sydney, and a jury, on the body of Amelia Cook, alias Amelia Day, who died in the house of Mr Samuel Jones, Publican, corner of Market and Sussex street about five o'clock yesterday morning, when the following witnesses were examined.
Captain Innis deposed -I am Superintendent of the Sydney Police, I produce the deposition of Amelia Cook, taken before me on the night of the 4th in my capacity of Superintendent of Police. She identified the prisoner Mark Day, as the person who had struck her a violent blow on the side, which had made her fall into the fire, she also stated that on the day after the circumstance occurred, the prisoner Day had endeavoured to persuade her to say that she had been burned by falling into the fire while lighting her pipe. The following is the deposition which I took from the lips of the deceased. New South Wales, Sydney to wit -Amelia Cook, at present lying dangerously ill, in the house of Mr Samuel Jones, Licensed Victualler, corner of Market and Sussex street, being duly sworn, on her oath saith -About eight o'clock, on the night of last Wednesday week, being the 26th of May, a man named Mark Day, with whom I have been living for some time past, just as I was going to bed, struck me a violent blow on my left side, without my having given him any provocation whatever, and knocked me on my right side into the fire; I got out with difficulty and I was all in flames, I have been ill ever since, and confined to my bed, the blow he gave me knocked me on the fire senseless so that I did not know how long I lay on it, the man now before me is the man, Mark Day, that I allude to. Amelia Cook, her mark. Sworn before me, at Sydney the 4th June, 1841. J. L. Innes JP. In answer to a question by the Coroner The deceased told me that there was no person present but the prisoner, and that she got out of the fire without his aid; that when she recovered her senses, and got out of the fire, the prisoner was undressed, and in an inner room she positively denied that any quarrel had taken place between them on the day in question; that they were both sober, but he had been in the habit of ill using her before that time. I think that from the way in which she made her deposition, she was aware that she
Cnr York & Market Streets, 1842
Cnr York & Market Streets, 1842
Watercolour - John Rae
was in a dangerous condition, and probably on her death bed; the prisoner had the opportunity of cross-examining her, but declined doing so, simply resting his defence on a denial of having done as she alleged. The son-in-law of the deceased was present while I examined her, and showed her every attention; at my suggestion another medical attendant was called in, which, under the circumstances of the case, I considered it my duty to do; but which, I believe, had given offence. Surgeon Dancey stated that he had merely complained of another being called in, in consequence of his being ignorant of the custom which prevailed in the Colony, as he was not aware that it was customary at home for the Coroner to call in another surgeon. The Coroner explained the law of the case; and the jury severally, through their foreman, expressed their opinion that Captain Innes had only done his duty in calling in Dr. Wallace.
Maria Bruce deposed : I live in Clarence, street; I knew the deceased and the prisoner; she lived next door to me on the 27th of May; about a quarter to two in the morning, I got out of bed to attend to my child, and heard the deceased moaning, and asked my boy if he heard Mrs. Day moaning, when he said, 'Oh, did you not hear of her being burnt.' I immediately went to the door, which she opened, when I called the prisoner, who was sleeping in an adjoining room; he did not hear me; I then went to him where he was; when I spoke to him about her being burnt, he told me he knew it, and showed me that his hands had been burnt while putting out the fire; she told me she had caught fire while lighting her pipe, as she used to do in order to break the wind on her stomach. I asked the prisoner if he had got a doctor, when he said he had not, as he thought no one would come. I went for Dr. Darcey, who came with her about fifteen minutes after. Her arm, breast, and neck, were burnt; on the following day her son and daughter told me that they thought Day had done it; I repeatedly asked her but she several times denied that he had any hand in it; my sons told me that she had been burnt about eleven o'clock on the preceding night; I was next door neighbour for between seven and eight months; they used to have words, but I never had any reason to believe that any quarrels took place, which were followed by blows; I have seen the deceased in liquor once or twice a-week, and have seen the prisoner sometimes in liquor on a Saturday night. [Questioned] By the Foreman -The houses are close to each other, the doors are not more than three or four yards apart, and if any cry of murder had been made, any person awake in my house must have heard it; there was no spirits given to her when I dressed her; there appeared be only a spark of fire when I went in, and they were both dressed at ten minutes to two.
Cross-examined- I and my husband met met you in York-street about eight o'clock on the evening of the 26th; we afterwards had a pot of ale, the stays of the deceased were off, but she had on a cotton gown.
James Bruce - I am the son of the preceeding witness, and know the deceased and the prisoner; on the evening of the 26th about eleven p.m., I heard the prisoner calling my mother; I went in when he told me that the deceased had caught fire, and showed me that he had been burnt in dousing it; the door was open; the prisioner did not say how it had occurred, neither did the deceased; there was but little fire in the fire place; there was an appearance of its having been put out by water, the clothes of the deceased were also wet; nothing was said about a doctor; my elder brother was with me, we were the only ones in my mother's family awake at the time; Day might have had a glass or two but was not drunk. The woman was so confused with the pain that I cannot say whether she was drunk or sober. I heard no more of the affair after I and my brother returned home, till seven o'clock on the follow morning; but I believe my brother did, as he afterwards awoke my mother and went for the doctor. [Questioned] By the Foreman - When we went in the deceased was crying with pain, but she blamed no one for it. [Questioned] By the' Coroner - I have, at different times, heard the deceased and prisoner quarrelling, but never knew them come to blows. I have seen the deceased in liquor on on average of three times a week; I have also seen the prisioner in liquor on a Saturday night. On the night when she was burnt I heard the deceased several times call out murder ! murder ! and heard the prisoner say what's the matter ? the crying was just before we went into the house, immediately after this the prisoner called for my mother, when my brother and I went in.
Mr. W. Darcey, surgeon, deposed : I was called on on the morning of the 27th ult, between two and three o'clock to attend the deceasd, whom I found sitting on a sofa, with such of her clothes on as were not burnt; her arm was burnt, and her right side; I asked her how it had occurred, when she told me that she had been lighting a fire, when her clothes caught fire; she told me she was of temperate habits, although her appearance led me to think otherwise; the prisoner was present, and showed me his hands, and stated that they had been burnt in extinguishing the fire; I prescribed for her, and suggested that she should be removed, which was done, and for some days after, she appeared to be doing well, until Monday last, when unfavourable appearances set in; there appeared to be some mystery about the case, but so long as there were favorable circumstances I did not consider it my duty to take any steps for bringing the matter before Captain Innes; from what I heard, I was induced to ask her if the prisoner had not given her a push on the fire; she gave me such an answer as led me to believe that the prisioner was the cause of the burning; she said she would like to see him punished, but not hanged; the burning was the moving cause of the death of the deceased. [Questioned] By the Coroner - I gave up hopes of the recovery of the deceased on Monday last, but she rallied a little on Tuesday last; she died early this morning; the burnings were extensive on the arm and side of the deceased; the last time I saw her alive was on Tuesday evening. When first called in, from the appearances, I had reason to believe that some hours elapsed, and blamed them for not calling medical aid earlier. After Dr. Wallace had been called, we both were of opinion that some stimulant in the form of spirit, should be given her, in order, if possible, to enable her to support the pain.
Emma Thompson deposed - I reside in Clarence street; I knew the deceased and the prisioner; on the day after the deceased had been burned I heard of it, and went in to see her, when I asked her how it happened; she told me that the had been set fire to by a coal falling out of her pipe; knowing that she and Day had sometimes quarrels, I asked her if he had any hand in her being burned, when she told me he had not; I knew that the prisoner once struck her; she was in the habit of drinking ardent spirits. [Questioned] By the Foreman - I have seen the deceased drunk while the prisoner was at his work. [Questioned] By the Coroner - I only once had reason to believe that the deceased had been struck by the prisoner.
The Coroner summed up at great length, calling the attention of the Jury particularly to the different statements which were sworn to have been made to various individuals, as to the way in which she had been injured, also to the cries which had been heard coming from the prisoner's residence on the night when the burning took place, as well as to the fact that the deceased was by her own confession an unwilling witness against the prisoner, and that it was not until she was near death that she stated how the burning had been occasioned; also as the time which had been allowed by the prisoner between the time when the burning had taken place, and medical assistance being called in; also that in her dying declaration, the deceased stated that the prisoner had struck her on the left side, and that the burning was on the right arm, side, and shoulder; all which circumstances tended to bring the case home to the prisoner. He laid down the law of the case, which in his opinion was not such as to admit of the jury returning a verdict of manslaughter, as there was no evidence of a quarrel having then taken place between them; nor was there any evidence to prove that provocation, had been given, or that it had been caused by an accidental push. According to the law of the case, it was one of murder or nothing. The prisoner stated that he was in bed when the circumstances occurred. The Jury, after ten minutes' deliberation, returned a verdict of Wilful murder; when the prisoner was committed to her Majesty's gaol until delivered in due course of law.(SMH 10/6/1841)"[551]

 
On 13/7/1841 the case went before the Supreme Court, where the jury eventually returned a verdict of not guilty.[552] In 1851 Maria was a witness in a rather colourful spousal abandonment case, at the time she was co-habitating with George John Learwood.[550] {Learwood born c.1791, died 1871, Parramatta, NSW, Australia (80yo).[4]}
  "A 'Bigg' Split. Domestic differences are of frequent occurrence in Sydney, and they arise, frequently, too frequently, from insignificant causes. It has happened that the toothing, fretfulness, or vaccination of an infant, has sent a nervous Papa from his domesticity and virtuous indulgences into all sorts of recklessness and improprieties. Not that Franch Henry Kelk was one of these fidgetty parents - no, certainly not; but he was compelled to make his exit from the ship Brutus, bound for California, in order to make his entree at the Police office, at the instance of the wife of his choice, Mrs. Margaret Kelk, an interesting looking female, whose age might be about-but, a lady's age is one of the mysteries into which rude man has no right to divè; Mrs, Margaret Kelk complained that her lawful and much loved husband left her and two infants totally unprovided her, and that he was about to depart for California, under the fictitious name of Beckworth, with one Kitty, alias Catherine McCabe, who had, at one time, looked after Mr. and Mrs. Kelk's progeny, and might be about to look after her own. Mr. Nichols appeared for the deserted wife; Mr. Brenan for the imaginary-injured and intentionally-departing husband. Margaret's case of desertion was proved in magnificent style by herself; Mrs. Maria Bruce and Mr. George John Learwood, with whom Margaret had lived, with her infant daughter, for the last two or three months. Mr. Learwood, under Mr. Brenan's overstrained and very crow-examination, declared 'that Margaret had got so many people a-trying to crush her down, that he would not sign his deposition till he had seen her righted.' The chivalry of this witness was, however, tamed down by a threat of Webster-ianizing him for forty-eight hours. For the defence, stepped forward Mrs. Fanny Haylock (the defendant's sister), and she deposed that she once saw one Thomas Biggs stand on a dung heap at the bottom of her yard, and through a six-feet paling heard him give Margaret a 'Pyramus and Thisbe' smack, at parting. Mr. Richard Leftwich, a translator of soles, resident in Market-street, also spoke to a considerable portion of difference between Margaret and her husband relative to Tom Biggs; and he even went so far as to say, that he saw them in company near Clark's Dancing Rooms, on some latter end of November night, which (as he very properly observed) proved it was not Guy Fawkes' Day. Then came one George Quadrille, a very effervescent sprig of addlesense, by profession a ginger-beer bottler, who testified to a pretty dance between the complaining wife and Mr. Biggs, up and down, hands across the fence and back again; and was proceeding at a Sir Roger de Coverty pace, when the cheek-string was suddenly pulled by Mr. G. R. Nichols, who elicited that the witness had come to court at Mr. Kelk's express invitation.' for the necessary purpose; that he was in the habit of drinking with Mr. Kelk during the day and watching his wife at night, for a period of about thirty days at the commencement of November; and that he had infinitely more regard for Mr. Kelk's feelings than his pocket, as he had considerately forborne all mention of the wife's nightly gallopade, promenade, or escapade with her alleged Big gallant, to the unsuspecting husband. At this period, on Mr. Brenan's intimation that he purposed calling certainly not fewer than a dozen more witnesses, the case was adjourned until nine o'clock this (Saturday) morning, when it is to be hoped the valuable time of the Court will not be entirely monopolised by the very disagreeable duty so frequently of late imposed upon it of deciding matrimonial misunderstandings. The flippancy of the last examined witness was highly censurable, and more than once drew upon him the rebuke of the Bench. His insolence to the cross-examining counsel was of itself deserving of a few hours solitary confinement.(Bells Life 22/2/1851)"[550]
 
Married William Bruce, 2/10/1815, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[250,432] Witnesses at the marriage included Samuel Howell (father) & Maria Junque (see note above).[425] William born c.1796 (from age given in 1828 census & age at death),[4,425] died 1850 & buried Church of England, Camperdown Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia (54yo).[4] William accompanied his mother when she was transported to Australia in 1798 on the “Britannia”.[15,250,425] {According to the 1828 William 'came free' on the Britannia.[425]} Ann Thompson, alias Bruce, was convicted 12/7/1797, Co Middlesex and sentenced to 7 years transportation.[15] In 1801 Ann Thompson (& presumably William) resided Parramatta, NSW, Australia, "off stores".[425] Publican, 1828.[425] On 16/5/1836 William Bruce was a juror at the trial of William and John Deane for cattle stealing; William was found not guilty, John was found guilty and sentenced to be 'transported to the colony' (this was William 'Lumpy' Dean of Eastern Creek, not related to the Thomas Dean who married Maria's sister, Hannah).[425] In 1848 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1848 William tennanted a house at No.850 Market Lane, Sydney, owned by Thomas Smith, having 1 floors, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £8.[571] In 1848 William owned a shop at No.847 Market Lane, Sydney, untennanted, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £20.[571] In 1848 William owned a house at No.849 Market Lane, Sydney, tennanted by John P. Garbot, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £8.[571] In 1848 William owned a house at No.849 Market Lane, Sydney, tennanted by Robert Butcher, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £8.[571] In 1848 William owned a house at No.851 Market Lane, Sydney, tennanted by Joseph Coleman, having 1 floors, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £8.[571]  
Resided 1828, Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425] Resided 1841, Clarence Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[551] Resided 1848, No.851 Market Lane (Street), Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1851, Market Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[550] Resided 1861, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4,250,549]

Children of Maria Howell & William Bruce:
i.
 
William Bruce, baptised 10/12/1817, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Died 1818, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
ii.

Edward Bruce, baptised 15/4/1819, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Died 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Between 1848-1871 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1848 Edward tennanted a house at No.480 Kent Street, Sydney, owned by Edward Farmer, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £13.[571]
In 1861 Edward tennanted a house off No.5 Goulburn Street, Sydney, owned by John Chard, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £12.[571]
In 1863 Edward owned & occupied a house on Palmer Lane, Sydney, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of stone with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £23.[571]
In 1867 Edward tennanted a house off No.3 Goulburn Street, Sydney, owned by John Chard, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £15.[571]
In 1871 Edward tennanted a house off No.3 Goulburn Street south side, Sydney, owned by J. Church, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £15.[571]
 
Married Catharine Sullivan, 1840, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Catherine, d/o William & Bridget, died 1897, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1848, No.480 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1861, off No.5 Goulburn Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1863, Palmer Lane, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1867, 1871, off No.3 Goulburn Street south side, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571]
Children: (a)
 
Edward Bruce, baptised 1841, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism also registered Brisbane Waters Church of England.[4]} Died 1846 & burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (infant).[4]
(b)
Maria Bruce, baptised 1844, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Daniel Sullivan, 1862, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Edward D. Sullivan, born 1867, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1915, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Eliza Catherine Sullivan, born 1870, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1870, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Alfred James Sullivan, born 1871, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1953, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Ruby Evelyn M. Jones, 1906, Wilcannia, NSW, Australia.[4] Ruby, d/o Thomas, died 1955, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) John A./J. Bruce, baptised 1846, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1846 & burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (infant).[4]
(d) Bridget Bruce, baptised 1848, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Possibly the Bridget Bruce who died 1892, Parramatta, NSW, Australia, no age or parents listed. A Bridget Bruce married Douglas langley, 1866, however this Bridget was the d/o either Michael or James.[4]}
(e) James Bruce, baptised 1851, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1901, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] {Too many possible marriages}
(f) Catharine Bruce, baptised 1854, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1855 & burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (infant).[4]
(g) Richard Bruce, born 1856, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] No further record.
(h) Edward Bruce, born 1858, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] No further record.
iii.

William Henry Bruce, baptised 10/9/1821, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Died 1877, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Between 1858-1877 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1858 William tennanted a house at No.26 Belvoir Place, Sydney, owned by Donald Kell, having 1 floor, an attic, built of wood with a shingled roof, no assessed annual value listed.[571]
In 1861 William tennanted a house at No.26 Belvoir Street, Sand Hills, Sydney, owned by J. Kyle, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of wood with an iron roof, with an assessed annual value of £25, described as being 'Close on the land & out of repair'.[571] In 1861 William tennanted a house at No.9 Church Street, Sydney, owned by Robert Dunsmore, having 1 floor, 3 rooms, built of stone with an iron roof, with an assessed annual value of £18.[571]
In 1867 William tennanted a house at 3 off Fitzroy Street, Sydney, owned by David Whithead, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of brick stone with a slate roof, with an assessed annual value of £18.[571]
In 1877 William tennanted a house at 268 Palmer Street, Sydney, owned by John Sharp, having 3 floors, 7 rooms, built of brick stone with a slate roof, with an assessed annual value of £46.[571]

 
Married Mary Matilda Hadley, 1854, Scots Church Presbyterian, Pitt Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Mary married 2nd John H. MacMillan, 1881, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1858, No.26 Belvoir Place, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1861, No.9 Church Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1867, 3 off Fitzroy Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1871, No.268 Palmer Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571]
Children: (a)
 
Alfred H. Bruce, born 1856, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1860, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
William Charles Bruce, born 1858, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 6/5/1909, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia (50yo).[4,148] Buried Presbyterian Section 5c.1, row 33, plot 5119,5121, Rookwood Cemetery Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148]
  On 4/9/1889 in the Metropolitan District Court, "William Charles Bruce, of Ann-street, Balmain, sued James Milne, of Bedford-street Balmain, insurance agent, to recover £200 damages for assault and battery. Mr. Roberts appeared for the plaintiff, and Mr. Scholes represented the defendant. The defence was "not guilty," and further that the plaintiff first assaulted the defendant, who thereupon necessarily committed the alleged assault in self-defence. After hearing a quantity of evidence, his Honor gave a verdict for the defendant with costs.(SMH 5/9/1889)"[494]  
On 13/9/1889 William Charles Bruce, of 2, Ann-street, Balmain, grocer, as declared bankrupt, Mr. E. M. Stephen the official assignee.[493]
Married Eliza Jane McCrill, 1882, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Eliza, d/o John & Esther, died 6/9/1901, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia (42yo),[4,148] & buried with her husband, Rookwood Cemetery Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Resided 1889, No.2 Ann Street, Balmain, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[493,494]
Children: (1)
 
Matilda H. Bruce, born 1884, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1925, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married John R. Matthews, 1914, Waratah, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Elsie M. Bruce, born 1886, Central Cumberland, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Roland G. Brasier, 1906, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) John William Bruce, born 1891, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1971, Burwood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Ethel M. Foord, 1920, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Mildred M. Bruce, born 1893, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1934, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.[4] Married William C. Belling, 1916, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Esther J. Bruce, born 1896, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alfred R. Willett, 1922, Hurstville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Thomas H. Bruce, born 1861, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1863, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Jessie M. Bruce, born 1863, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1933, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Did not marry.[4]
(e) Edith Mary Bruce, born 1870, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Charles Peterson, 1895, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Hadley William Bruce, born 1875, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1893, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) Arthur G. Bruce, born 1877, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1879, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
iv.

James Bruce, baptised 23/9/1823, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] {Too many possible James Bruce's. None of the James' having issue between 1840-1860 had common forenames with James' siblings. Possibly the james who died 1840, Sydney (20yo).[4]}
v.

George Thomas Bruce, baptised 14/10/1825, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] {BMD index gives year as 1823} No obvious trace of a marriage, death or issue in NSW.[4]
vi.
Richard Henry Bruce, baptised 17/4/1828, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] In 1855 Richard was a business partner with Thomas Andrew Torning in "Torning and Bruce", painters, glaziers & plumbers.[548] On 6/9/1855 Richard & Thomas mutually dissolved their partnership {from the context, probably due to Torning's retirement}:
  "Dissolution. The Partnership heretofore subsisting between us, the undersigned, Thomas Andrew Torning and Richard Henry Bruce, carrying on business together at No. 4, Macquarie-place, in the city of Sydney, as Painters, Glaziers, and Plumbers, under the firm or style of 'Torning and Bruce,' has been this day dissolved by mutual consent; and all debts due to and from the said firm are to be paid to and by the said Richard Henry Bruce. Dated Sydney, September sixth, 1885. Thomas Andrew Torning, Richard Henry Bruce. Witness - James Husband.(Empire 7/12/1855)"[548]
 
Between 1858-1861 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1858 Richard tennanted a house at No.300 Sussex Street, Sydney, owned by William Perry, having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of brick with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £36.[571]
In 1861 Richard tennanted a house at No.115 Crown Street, Sydney, owned by Adam Howitt, having 2 floor, 5 rooms, built of brick with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £30.[571]

 
Married Elizabeth Law, 28/2/1854, Scot's Church, Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,547]
  "On the 28th instant, by the Rev. Dr. Fullarton, Richard Henry Bruce, of Sydney, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Mrs. Margaret Law, of Sussex-street, Sydney.(Empire 22/3/1854)"[547]
 
Resided 1858, No.300 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1861, No.115 Crown Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] {No further record in NSW, probably left the colony}
vii.
Charles Robert Bruce, baptised 3/9/1833, St John Church of England, Parramatta, NSW, Australia.[4] Baptism also recorded at St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Died 1891, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Between 1855-1891 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1855 Charles tennanted a house at No.23 Duke Street, Sydney, owned by Weaver & Kemp, having 1 floor, 3 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571]
In 1858 Charles tennanted a house at No.76 Duke Street, Sydney, owned by W. S. Sotherm, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £31.[571]
In 1861 Charles tennanted a house at No.23 Duke Street, Sydney, owned by Weaver & Kemp, having 1 floor, 3 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571] In 1861 Charles tennanted a house & shop at No.179 George Street, Sydney, owned by William Long, having 1 floor, 1 room, built of iron & wood with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571]
In 1863 Charles tennanted a shop at No.179 George Street West side, Sydney, owned by William Long, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of iron & wood with a zinc-iron roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571]
In 1867 Charles tennanted a house at No.180 Kent Street, Sydney, owned by William Daily, having 1 floor, 3 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571]
In 1871 Charles tennanted a house at No.3 Woolloomooloo Lane, Sydney, owned by A. Hollingshed, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571]
In 1877 Charles tennanted a house at No.11 Campbell Place, Sydney, owned by J.A. McHale, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick & stone with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £33.[571]
In 1880 Charles tennanted a house at No.208 Palmer Street, Sydney, owned by Mrs Drewitt, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of stone with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £41.[571]
In 1882 Charles tennanted a house at No.208 Palmer Street, Sydney, owned by E. Dewar, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571] In 1882 Charles tennanted a wharf at Wharf Street, Sydney, owned by the City Corporation, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £400, but exempted, and with the note 'Here Market Street'.[571]
In 1891 Charles tennanted a wharf & offices off No.989 Wharf Street, Sydney, owned by the City Council, having 1 floor, 1 room, built of brick & stone with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £500.[571]

 
Married Ann Owens, 1860, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1851, No.23 Duke Street (now McElhone St), Woolloomooloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1858, No.76 Duke Street, Woolloomooloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1861, No.23 Duke Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1867, No.180 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1871, No.3 Woolloomooloo Lane (now Cathedral Lane), Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1877, No.11 Campbell Place, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1880, 1882, No.208 Palmer Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571]
Children: (a)
 
Charles Frederick Bruce, born 1860, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1946, Islington, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Jane Brimsten, 1886, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4] Jane, d/o Michael & Harriet, died 1949, Islington, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Stanley Bruce, born 1889, Hamilton, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1943, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]   
(2)
Albert C. Bruce, born 1898, Hamilton, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Marion R. Barnes, 1921, New Lambton, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) George Bruce, born 1905, West Maitland, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1968, Belmont, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Harold Victor Bruce, born 1909, Maitland, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Ivy Thelma Burton, 1936, Parramatta, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Albert Counsel Bruce, born 1863, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1947, Hamilton, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Caroline E. Winchester, 1893, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4] Caroline, d/o Herbert & Emma, died 1932, Hamilton, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Sydney A. Bruce, born 1866, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1933, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Dorcas Elizabeth Waddingham, 1891, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4] Dorcas, d/o Charles & Elizabeth, died 1948, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Sylvia Bruce, born 1903, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Sidney Field, 1926, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Victoria J. Bruce, born 1868, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1903, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married William W. Chandler, 1895, Newcastle, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Bruce Chandler, born 1896, Stockton, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1897, Stockton, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
George Henry Chandler, born 1898, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1967, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Dorothy W. Shedden, 1925, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4]
viii. John Albert Bruce, baptised 12/2/1835, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Died 1835, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
ix. Joseph Alfred Bruce, baptised 24/6/1837, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Died 25/12/1865, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4,546] "On the 25th December, at his residence, Penrith, Joseph Alfred Bruce, youngest son of the late Mr. William Bruce, of Sydney, aged 25 years.(SMH 1/1/1866)"[546] Married Eliza Matilda Anderson, 1862, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (a)
 
George A. Bruce, born 1865, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1876, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
x. John Albert Bruce, baptised 10/8/1840, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250]
xi. Elizabeth Bruce, baptised 12/3/1844, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,250] Married John Andrew Smith, 1866, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (a)
 
George H. Smith, born 1869, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Amelia M. Smith, born 1870, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Olive R. Smith, born 1871, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) infant Smith, born 1875, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]

   
Cottage, Penrith, 1860s
Cottage, Penrith, c.1870
Photographer unknown
St John's, Parramatta, 1870
St John's, Parramatta, 1870
Photograph - Beaufoy Merlin
Cottages, 473-475 Kent St, Sydney
Cottages, 473-475 Kent St, Sydney
Photograph - City of Sydney, 1875
  Penrith is a suburb in western Sydney, located 50 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district. It lies on the eastern side of the Nepean River, at the foot of the Blue Mountains. Penrith was named after the town of Penrith, Cumbria, England. The earliest known written reference to the name Penrith dates back to 1819. Watkin Tench was the first British explorer to visit the area in 1789 and named the Nepean River after Lord Evan Nepean, under-secretary to the home department. Governor King began granting land in the area to settlers in 1804. In 1814, William Cox constructed a road across the Blue Mountains which passed through Penrith. Initial settlement in the area was unplanned but substantial enough for a courthouse to be established in 1817. The post office was established in 1828, the Anglican church, St Stephens, was built in 1844 followed by the Catholic Church, St Nicholas of Myra, in 1850. The first bridge was opened over the Nepean in 1856 and was washed away the following year in a flood. The railway line was extended to Penrith in 1863, a school was established in 1865 and in 1871 the area became a municipality.[Wikipedia] A description of Penrith from 1862:
  "Our little village yesterday, for the first time, heard the solemn sound of the muffled drum, for our Rifles, in obedience to their Captain, fell in at a quarter past 10, and marched to Divine service, headed by the fifes and craped drums, each man also wearing crape on his left arm, as a mark of respect to, and condolence with, their beloved Queen – at this time of her sad bereavement – on the death of her Consort and the father of our future King. It certainly cannot be denied that the nation has at this particular era met with an irreparable loss, and New South Wales cannot also but feel for the unsettled state of European affairs, as by our last advices it is evident that, should there be war, we must be left in a great measure to our own military resources. This has stimulated our Volunteer corps to stick together, and prevented that catastrophy a disbandonment, so anxiously looked for, and desired by a few outsiders; but Captain Riley still exults, and long may he, in the proud position of senior Captain, which from his constant anxiety and zeal is evinced in the corps, he is fully entitled to. Our railway is progressing favourably, and we do now flatter ourselves we will hear the shrill whistle, and see the iron-horse in Penrith by May Day; if so, a boon will be conferred not alone on Penrith and its neighbourhood, but the whole Western interior will feel the benefit. Buildings are being erected almost daily, and we ere long must have the Sydney houses of business men here on the spot, to transact orders from the interior so as to allow carriers to get clear away again with speed. It is fixed upon that the permanent station should be at the lower end of Penrith, but on the opening it is said that a temporary one will be erected at the end of the present cutting, and near to the termination of the existing contract. It matters little as to where the site is after the extension on to Emu Plains, which it is presumed will be in about five years hence; as the train passing by, any one is aware, does not contribute much benefit to a town: all, therefore, that is sought for is a station, temporary or permanent, somewhere on 1st May, and if the Government feel inclined to open the line as far as St. Mary’s when finished, it is reported, within a fortnight, so much more gratifying it will be to the Penrith people. The crops of maize are really looking splendid and the grass in the paddocks and bush is most abundant, resembling spring time. There are still complaints from carriers of the old dronish manner of getting across the river. We do trust the Government will bestir themselves and build us the £70,000 bridge, for it is tedious in the extreme the present mode of transport. We have not heard very much of “free selection” here, but that is perhaps accounted for in having no good available land in this old settled district. The District Court was held here last week, Mr. Justice Cheeke presided. There were eighty-five cases, but none of any consequence to report. The police report has been very dull of late; and from what fell from a learned advocate to-day, we seem to be without police protection, a screw being somehow loose in no appointments being made under some recent Act. Prisoners were, therefore, fortunate in being liberated from durance vile, guilty or not guilty, I suppose. The Rev. Mr. Stack, of Balmain, is doing duty here in the Episcopalian Church, a short exchange having been effected with the Rev. Elijah Smith for the benefit of each other’s health. A sermon was preached by the former, yesterday, on the uncertainty of life, and commenting most eloquently and touchingly on the sudden demise of his late Royal Highness Prince Albert. By the way, I was nearly forgetting to mention that our Penny Bank is getting on well, and the youngsters seem to be saving their pence instead of spending them in lollies. These little savings, I think, learn the rising generation thrifty habits, and teach them the value of money. The report of our school of arts is anything but cheering, and those for whom the institution was intended, it is to be feared, undervalue it, and are seemingly unaware of the benefits they might derive from it were they to spend their spare time in reading at the commodious rooms provided by the committee of management."[Sydney Morning Herald 5/3/1862]  
 
     
9 Church St, Paddington
9 Church St, Paddington
Photograph - Google StreetView
Fitzroy St, Surry Hills
Fitzroy St, Surry Hills
Photograph - Google StreetView
McElhone Street (formerly Duke Street)
McElhone Street (formerly Duke Street)
Photograph - City of Sydney, 1912
   
Block containing 179 George Street, 1871
Block containing 179 George Street, 1871
Photograph - Walter Chaffer
210-212 Palmer St, Darlinghurst
210-212 Palmer St, Darlinghurst
Photograph - Google StreetView
Warehouses, Wharf Street, 1871
Warehouses, Wharf Street, 1871
Photograph - Sands' Sydney Directory
     
     

Sydney Infirmary, 1870
Sydney Infirmary, 1870
Australian Medical Pioneers Index

1.3. Hannah Howell (d/o Samuel),[4,235,236] born 1795[4,66]/1797[234]/1800[235]/1803,[425] Sydney, NSW, Australia.[66] Died 12/2/1871, Sydney Infirmary (now Sydney Hospital), Sydney, NSW, Australia (76yo).[4,66] Cause of death was "disease of the heart" and an inquest was held 14/2/1871.[66] Death was certified by Henry Shick, coroner, Sydney.[66] Hannah was buried 14/2/1871, St Jude's Church of England, Avoca Street, Randwick Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[66] {Hannah's death certificate records her burial being at "Randwick Cemetery, Sydney". The present day Randwick Cemetery was established in 1873 & the first burials were not until 1874. Prior references to "Randwick Cemetery" actually referred to the graveyard at St Jude's Church of England, Randwick} George Shiping & Francis Woods were witnesses at Hannah's burial (probably employees of the undertaker, J. H. Shiping).[66] Hannah was married at the time of her death, however no details on her spouse or children were listed on the death certificate.[66]
"Death. On the 12th instant, at Campbell-street, Mrs Hannah Thorogood, in her 74th year, mother of William, Samuel & Richard Kippax (SMH 14-2-1871)".[234] "Sudden Death. About half-past 6 o'clock last evening [12-2-1871], a very respectably dressed woman, apparently about 60 years of age, whose name could not be ascertained, went into the verandah of a house, No.128 Campbell-street, Surry Hills, occupied by Mr Samuel Davis, and asked for a glass of water, saying that she felt very weak. The water was supplied, she took a little out of a tumbler, and then she said she thought she might get a little better if she were to sit down. A chair having been placed in the verandah, she was in the act of seating herself on it when she fell back in a swoon. Senior-constable Heneberry, who was passing by, procured a cab, in which he conveyed her to the Infirmary [now Sydney Hospital]. On arrival at the institution life was found to be extinct. The circumstances have been reported to the City Coroner. It is understood that the deceased was on her way to church when so suddenly taken ill. (Sydney Morning Herald, 13-2-1871)"[236] "The friends of Alderman Kippax Esq. are invited to attend the funeral of his late beloved mother, Hannah Thorogood, to move from his residence, corner of Bourke and Campbell Streets, Surry Hills, this Tuesday afternoon at 3 o'clock and proceed to Randwick cemetery. J & G Shying, undertakers 719 George Street South, and 120 South Head Road. (SMH 14/2/1871)"[239]
"Death from Disease of the Heart. Yesterday forenoon the City Coroner held, at Gannon's Hotel, King Street, an inquest, touching the cause of death of Mrs. Hannah Thoroughgood, then lying at the Infirmary. William Kippax deposed that he was a poulterer, residing at the corner of Campbell and Bourke Streets, Surry Hills; the deceased was his mother; she was seventy-two years of age, a native of the colony, and a widow; she had left a family of seven children; she lived with him; she had enjoyed good health till within the last six months, during which time she showed signs of decay, and about that time ago she was under the care of Dr. Fertescue for what was then imagined to be an attack of asthma; she had been under medical treatment for heart disease; during the last few months she had suffered when walking from shortness of breath; the last time he saw her alive was on Sunday morning last at breakfast, after having which she left for church, and he did not see her again alive; her non-return on Sunday night did not excite any apprehension on his part, as he thought she was at his brother's, where she was occasionally in the habit of stopping. Sarah Davis deposed that she was a married woman, and resided with her husband at 128, Campbell-street, Surry Hills; the deceased came to her place about half-past 6 o'clock on Sunday evening last, to the verandah where witness was, and asked her to give her a chair to sit down; she acceded to her request; the deceaed sat down; she appeared to be suffering from difficulty of breathing; at her request witness gave her a glass of water, and asked her if she would take anything else, and she said "No;" she asked her to come inside and lie down, but she declined; witness then went into the kitchen, leaving her in the verandah, but returned directly; she was then bleeding either from the mouth or nose; she did not speak; she thought she was very ill, and sent for her neighbour (Mrs. McCarthy), who came and said she was dying; she never spoke. Senior-constable Heneberry deposed to having conveyed the deceased in a cab to the Infirmary about half-past 6 o'clock on the evening of Sunday last; on arriving at the Infirmary, Dr. Joseph pronounced life extinct. Dr. Joseph deposed that, having made a post-mortem examination of the body of deceased, he was of opinion that death had resulted primarily from disease of the heart, and secondarily from serous apoploxy, accelerated by a loaded state of the stomach. The jury returned a verdict of 'Death from disease of the heart.(SMH 15/2/1871)"[566]

In 1825 was a witness at the marriage of her half-sister, Dinah Egg (aka Eager).[425] Prior to her second marriage Hannah variously recorded her name as Hannah Howell (1820), Ann Dean (1822), Hannah Dean (1825), Hannah Egg (1827), Hannah Howell (1829) & Hannah Dean (1832).[425]
Married Thomas Dean, 22/5/1820, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[4,235,236,241] Witness was Maria Bruce (nee Howell).[425] Thomas Dean alias White, born 1787/1788,[4,245] died 1843 & was buried 1843, St John's Church of England, Parramatta, NSW (55yo).[4,248] Thomas, a convict,[235] arrived at Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW in 1811 on the "Admiral Gambier", listed as Thomas Dean alias White.[243] He was convicted 1810, Co Essex, England, and sentenced to transportation for life.[243] In 1814 Thomas Dean, a convict, was assigned to C. Lyons.[245] In the 1823-1824-1825 musters, Thomas White, a labourer, had a Ticket of Leave & resided in the Parramatta district.[245] In 1828 Thomas, a labourer with a Ticket of Leave, was assigned to Josh Pye, Bathurst, NSW.[245] In 1837 Thomas, with a Ticket of Leave, resided in the
St Matthew's, Windsor
St Matthew's, Windsor
Photograph © David Powell

 Penrith-Windsor district, NSW (50yo).[245] Thomas received a conditional pardon dated 21/8/1839 & 1/9/1839.[244] Some time after the birth of Thomas & Hannah's son, probably mid-1826, Hannah abandoned her husband and began an affair (presumably with Richard Kippax, below, since they had a child early 1827).[567] Thomas brought the issue to court, however Hannah refused to return to him and as a result she was sentenced to 2 months of 3rd class imprisionment at the Female Factory (3rd class normally involved hard labour in chain gangs, however since Hannah was then 5 months pregnant, it is likely she was spared this):[567]
"Thursday, November 16. Hannah Deane was brought before the Court, accused by her husband, Thomas Deane, a man whose appearance bespoke anxiety, and who, in a languid tone, set forth his complaint; that he had married Hannah and thereby given unto her the name of Deane, now about five years since: that they had always lived happily together, until within a few months ago : that he had ever endeavoured to accommodate a mutual good understanding, and if she thought proper to take a fat pig to Sydney and sell it, thither she might go and perform their mutual desires; that he never said wrong she did; that she had, however, abandoned her home, and had taken with her a lovely babe, which had since been drowned, by carelessness of its nurse; that she had become the companion of another person; that she refused to return home; that he would forgive all her faults, and never once upbraid her with the past, and very impressively concluded with 'and there she is, and she cannot say but I always used her well.' The prisoner now addressed the Court, 'He never beat me, I own; But I left him, he was poor, and could not support me; he had no tea and sugar.' Benjamin Longstreets was called, who proved that the complainant always provided a sufficient supply of pork; had wheat in his house and was never without good corn. 'Ah! but tea and sugar'. Longstreets continued, 'He had tea and sugar, and they always lived happily together.' The prisoner then said, in undisguised terms, that Longstreets procured the tea and sugar, and that Deane knew how he (Longstreets) was requited. Patiently admonished and ordered to return home, and forsake her dissolute way; 'I beg to be excused, I cannot.' Sentence, 2 months to the Factory, in 3d class.(Gazette 29/11/1826)"[567]
In 1828 Thomas was found living at Bathurst, NSW, then on the far western border of the colony, returning to the Windsor area by 1837.[245] {By this time Hannah had left the Windsor district}
Married 2nd Richard 'John' Kippax,[235] 6/5/1832, St James, Pitt Town, NSW.[242,246] Richard, s/o Richard,[246] born 1787/1790/1791,[4,235,242,243] Co Yorkshire, England,[242] died 28/2/1839,[235,237,242] Sydney, NSW,[242] & buried 1839, St Lawrence Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (52yo).[4] Recorded by Paul Benson "Deaths. Mr Richard Kippax of the Cross road Parramatta road. Wheelwright and father of W. & R. Kippax poulterers of Sydney market and my old master that Learned me my trade as Wheelwright. he died at Mr Bruce's in Sydney on the last day of February 1839."[247] {After gaining his freedom in 1837 Paul Benson was apprenticed to Richard Kippax and gave his address as "At Mr Kippax, Wheelright, next door to the Plough Inn, Parramatta Road, NSW. The Plough Inn was on the northern side of Parramatta Road, at the junction of Parramatta & Liverpool Roads.[247,249]} Richard was a convict, arrived Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, 26/4/1815 on the 'Indefatigable'.[235.242] Was convicted 1814, Kingston-upon-Thames, Co Yorkshire, & sentenced to life transportation, 27yo at the time.[235] {Listed as John Kippas. The following year a Richard Kippas arrived in Sydney, 11/10/1816, on the 'Mariner', convicted London, 1815, & sentenced to 14 years transportation.[235] However this individual is not consistent with other known details on Richard Kippax - see insert below which refers to a life sentence & arrived April or May 1816. In the 1822 General Muster both Richard Kippas' are listed, one in Windsor (Indefatigable), the other in Appin (Mariner).[245] This confirms the identity of 'John Kippas' as the same person as Richard Kippas} 'John' Kippas received a Conditional pardon, 31/7/1820.[244,247] Richard was a wheelwright, 1822, 1827, 1828, 1830, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1837.[245, 246,247,286]
Sydney as seen from Flagstaff Hill in the early 1820s
Sydney as seen from Flagstaff Hill in the early 1820s
Image - The Dempsey Story, Veronica Walker

On 29/11/1820 Richard Kippas was interviewed by Commissioner Bigge, who had been sent from England to report on the state of the colony during Governor Macquarie's administration: "I am a prisioner for life. I have been six years in the Country next May. I was first assigned to Mr Howe to work at the wharf at Windsor. I continued there three months and was then assigned to Mr Cox, and stopped with him eight weeks at Clarendon, putting up a barn for Mr Cox. I received nine shillings per week then from him. I then went to Bathurst and was in Government employ there. I assisted to put up the Stock Yard at Crooked Corner. A soldier one of the veterans assisted me to put it up. I think that was in January 1817 that I went to Bathurst. Bensley, Maggick, Brown and Griffiths, were all Government men, and in Government employ. Baldwin was also one. I was at Bathurst three years, and had the misfortune to break my leg. I was in the Hospital at Windsor for some months; and when I came out I went to Mr Cox. Being unable to do much for myself I remained with Mr Cox, and am still with him. He allows me £40 per annum. he pays me in property and in money. I never had a Pass from Mr Cox. I now work at Wheelwright's business, and received my Emancipation six months ago. Before I went to Bathurst, and after I had been in the Country five months, I, and seven other convicts, ran away from Windsor, got beyond Bathurst 150 miles. We hoped to get to the other side of the country, and make our escape under a belief that we should find a Dutch Settlement. We were obliged to return for want of food. One man died, and we were taken to the Hospital, and remained there some time, as we were much reduced. We were not punished. I went to Mr Cox to go to Bathurst after this."[247] {This Richard had been in the colony at least 5 months prior to Jan 1817, which precludes him from being the Richard Kippas who arrived 11/10/1816 on the Mariner, less than 3 months previously. The other Richard Kippas died & was buried 1835, St Phillip's Church of England, Sydney, NSW (46yo).[4]}
"(Sydney Gazette & NSW Advertiser 25/11/1826): Richard Kippax was charged with having in his possession a stolen counterpane, but which charge, on examination, took a very different turn, from what the complainant had conceived it deserved. Proof only went to a probability that Kippax  had lain under the counterpane belonging to another man, the said counterpane had been laid upon his bed by another man's wife; and the world generally supposed that every good wife should by right repose under her husband's counterpane; and that if aught was wrong it must be decided in the Supreme Court. Complaint dismissed."[284] In 1831 Richard was leasing a block on George Street (Sydney Herald 19/12/1831, 26/12/1831): "Lot VII. A Piece of Ground, frontage in George-street, 62 feet, and containing 83 rods, with Wheelwright's, Blacksmith's, and Druggist's Shops, with Dwelling House, etc. standing thereon, at present under Lease to Richard Kippax, for a Term of Five Years. Three Years of which is unexpired, at a rent of £52 10s. Sterling. Payable Quarterly."[288] In 1833 Richard Kippax & Patrick Redmond were executors of the estate of James Magrath (Sydney Herald 11/4/1833, 15/4/1833 & 18/4/1833): "Estate of the late James Magrath, of Windsor. All persons having claims or demands on the estate of the late , deceased, are requested to forward the same to us, or either of us, in order that steps may be taken to enable us to discharge them : and the Public are hereby cautioned against purchasing (or in anywise receiving) Stock or Chattels of any description, belonging to the said Estate, without first obtaining our permission in wiiting, as they will answer the contrary at their own risk. Windsor 9th april 1833."[287] In 1833 Richard's apprentice, Thomas Brady, assaulted Richard and absconded, presumably to the Windsor district (Sydney Herald 21/11/1833, 25/11/1833 & 28/11/1833): "I again caution the Public of New South Wales, particularly the Inhabitants of Windsor, from harbouring my apprentice, who absconded from my employ, after doing me serious injuries, and using the most indecorous language to my family. I therefore offer a reward of ten shillings for his apprehension and safe custody in any of his Majesty's Goals in the Colony, this being his eleventh time of absconding. Thomas Brady, native of Windsor, aged 19, about 5 feet 10 inches, fair complexion, dark brown hair, was seen in Windsor on Monday night last. Richard Kippax, Wheelwright, near the Plough Inn, Parramatta Road."[286] After Richard's death Hannah attempted to pursue a relationship with her deceased husband's apprentice, Paul Benson, as related in letters between Paul & his family living in England at the time.[247,249] Paul declined Hannah's attentions of his mistress (at the time Paul was 26yo,[235,249] & Hannah in her early 40s) & she turned her attentions elsewhere & pursued Phillip Thoroughgood, then residing in the Parish of Concord, District of Parramatta, NSW, Australia.[19] Like her two previous partners, Phillip was also a former convict, and close to her own age.[235]
Married 3rd Philip Thoroughgood.[4] {Defacto relationship, probably began shortly after the death of Richard Kippax, no marriage recorded} Philip born c.1793[15,36,38]/1795,[4] Co Essex, England.[36,38] Died 31/1/1855, Burwood, NSW, Australia (60yo),[4,180] & buried 2/4/1855, St John the Baptist, Church of England, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[166,180] by Rev. T. H. Wilkinson.[180] Resided 1820-1825, Windsor, NSW.[4,245] Resided 1825, Melville parish, NSW.[245] Living with them was Dinah Egg, Hannah's half-sister (refer to Germaine chart).[425] {The parish of Melville was located near the modern day Sydney suburb of Horsley Park, about 18km WSW of Parramatta} Resided 1827, 1828, 1830, 1832, Windsor, NSW.[245, 246,247] Resided 1834, Sydney, NSW.[246] Resided 1837, Parramatta Road, Sydney, NSW.[246] Resided 1833-1839, cnr Parramatta Road & Liverpool Road, Haberfield, Sydney, NSW.[247,286] Resided 1839, Cross Road, Parramatta Road, Sydney, NSW.[247] Resided 1846, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[236] Resided 1851, Homebush, Sydney, NSW.[236] Resided 1855, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[4,180]

Children of Hannah Howell & Thomas Dean:

i.
 
James Dean,[235,237] born 14/7/1824,[248] baptised 1824, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[4] Died 10/9/1826,[248] & buried 1826, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[4] With parents in 1825.[245]

Children of Hannah Howell & Richard John Kippax:
*
ii.
 
William Henry (Howell) Kippax,[4,234,235,236,237,242] born 29/3/1827, Windsor, NSW,[246] baptised 3/6/1827, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[246]
*
iii.

Samuel (Howell) Kippax,[4,234,235,236] born 23/12/1829, Windsor, NSW,[246] baptised 5/6/1830, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[246]
*
iv.

Richard Kippax,[4,234,235,236,237] born 6/5/1832, baptised 19/8/1832, St James, Pitt Town, NSW.[246]

v.

Henry Kippax,[236,237] born 26/8/1834,[242,246] baptised 30/9/1834, St Phillip Church of England, Sydney, NSW.[4,246] Died before 1839.[247]

vi.

Matthew Kippax,[236,237] born 8/5/1837,[235,246] Parramatta Road, Sydney,[246] baptised 1837, St Phillip Church of England, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1838 & buried 20/11/1838, St James Church of England, Sydney, NSW (18mo).[4,246]

Children of Hannah Howell & Philip Thoroughgood (refer to Thoroughgood chart for details on issue):
*
vii.
 
Philip Thorogood, born 13/6/1840,[237,251,254] Homebush, Sydney, NSW,[254] & baptised 1843, St John, Church of England, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism also registered in the parish of the Australian Agricultural Company, Dungog, Eldon, Stroud & Uffington, NSW, Australia}
*
viii.

Mary Ann Thorogood/Thoroughgood, born 29/4/1843,[4,251,256] Croydon, Sydney, NSW,[251] & baptised 1843, St John, Church of England, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
*
ix.

George Thourrogood/Thourrogood,[4] born 19/1/1846, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW,[236,238,251,256] baptised 20/12/1846, St John, Church of England, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[236,238]
*
x.

Henry Thoroughgood, born 1851, Homebush, Sydney, NSW.[236,251,256]

   
Area of 128 Campbell St, Surry Hills (1928)
Area of 128 Campbell St, Surry Hills (1928)

Photograph - City of Sydney Archives
St Jude's, Randwick
St Jude's, Randwick

Photograph - Heritage NSW
Plough Inn, Crossroads, 1845
Plough Inn, Crossroads, 1845
(Kippax' residence to the right of inn)

Drawing - "A Benson Family History"[249]
  Sydney Infirmary was opened in 1816, replacing an older hospital. It was known as the "Rum Hospital" because it was constructed by a contractor whose payment took the form of a license to import spirits. The Sydney Infirmary of colonial times was the predecessor of the modern Sydney Hospital, and the direct descendent of the first hospital at Sydney Cove (1788).[Australian Medical Pioneers Index] The church complex of St Jude's, Randwick represents an almost perfect example of a typical English village churchyard with the church, rectory, verger's residence, parish hall & the cemetery. The cemetery is one of the best maintained Victorian cemeteries in the Sydney region. The church was possibly built by Edmund Blacket (who also built St John's, Ashfield), between 1861-1865. It is a large Victorian Gothic church built of masonry and stone. The earliest tomb in the cemetery is dated 1843 and the majority were between 1865 and the 1890's. The cemetery is older than the present church building and it is believed that some of the graves could be much older.[Heritage NSW]  
     
Thompson Square, Windsor (1870s)
Thompson Square, Windsor (1870s)
Photograph - Hawkesbury City Council Library
St James, Pitt Town
St James, Pitt Town
Photograph © Bev Woodman
St Phillips, Sydney (1809)
St Phillips, Sydney (1809)
Watercolour
- John Lewin [State Library NSW]
  Windsor is a town in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It sits on the Hawkesbury River, on the north-western outskirts of the Sydney metropolitan area. Windsor is the third-oldest place of British settlement on the Australian continent. Settlement at the location was first established about 1791, near the head of navigation on the Hawkesbury River and taking advantage of the fertile river flats for agriculture. The area was originally called Green Hills, but renamed Windsor (after Windsor in England). The town was officially proclaimed on 15 December 1810, Governor Lachlan Macquarie having "marked out the district of Green Hills", which he "... called Windsor", after Windsor-on-the-Thames. While in Windsor, Macquarie ordered the main institutions of organised settlement to be erected, such as a church, a school-house, a gaol and a "commodious inn" (The Macquarie Arms). Of these new buildings, the most outstanding was Francis Greenway's Saint Matthew's Anglican Church, for which Macquarie himself chose the site. Samuel Marsden, principal chaplain of the colony, consecrated the church on December 8th, 1822. In 1813 a report was given to Governor Macquarie from Earl Bathurst detailing a proposed invasion of the Hawkesbury River by France. This planned invasion that did not eventuate, targeted the Windsor granary in order to cut off supply to Sydney, showing the relative importance of this new settlement on a global scale. Windsor is approximately 60 kilometres north-west of Sydney, and the location was chosen because of the agricultural potential of the area and because the location was accessible by coastal shipping from Sydney. It was known as the "bread basket", ensuring the survival of the starving colony. The extensive agriculture caused major silting in the Hawkesbury River, by the 1890s the river had become so blocked with silt, ships could not travel up to Windsor from the coast. By then the railway, in 1864, and the road, in 1814, had been built. Many of the oldest surviving European buildings in Australia are located at Windsor.[Wikipedia] Pitt Town is a historic town and suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 59 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Hawkesbury, not far from Windsor. Pitt Town is one of the five 'Macquarie Towns' established by Governor Macquarie in 1810. It is named after William Pitt the Elder, the 18th Century British Prime Minister. A site for a village was laid out in 1811 but developed very slowly. By 1841 there were only 36 houses in the town due to its location being too far from the rich river flats and the consequent long daily trek for farmers to their holdings. Church services were possibly held in the Pitt Town locality from the early 1800s, however it was not until the 1820s that a purpose built building was established. In 1810 Reverend Robert Cartwright was appointed as the resident chaplain to the Hawkesbury and was stationed at Windsor. In 1814 Matthew Pearson Thompson established a school in Pitt Town and taught there until 1818, followed John Downing Wood. In 1820 repairs were made to the dwelling so that it was adequate as a school, chapel and accommodation for the schoolmaster. Rev John Cross used the building a temporary chapel. In 1825 Reverend Matthew Devenish Meares arrived on the "Mariner" with his wife & family was appointed as the Assistant Chaplain for a new parish which covered the area of Wilberforce, Sackville and Pitt Town. In about 1827 a larger building was established for use as a schoolhouse and chapel in Bathurst Street, costing £274. A single storey building, it was also used for church services. During the 1840s the congregation agitated for a new church and eventually in the 1850s a decision was made to go ahead and to build a new church. The foundation stone was eventually laid on the 30th July 1857 by the Lord Bishop of Sydney. The sandstone church was designed by architect Edmund Blacket and constructed by Thomas Collison for £1050. It is very similar to St. John's Church at Wilberforce although on a smaller scale. It cost £1050 to build. Although completed in 1858 and in use the church was officially consecrated by Bishop Barker on the 11th April 1859.[Wikipedia, Hawkesbury] Richard Johnson established the first church in Australia in the 1790s. His church, which was built and operated without Government funding, was burnt down in 1798, after which plans were made by the Governor to build St Phillip's Church on Church Hill. Governor Hunter laid the foundation stone in 1800 but due to building problems the church did not finally open until 1809. The original St Phillip's stone church was replaced in 1857 by the current church designed in the Gothic style by Architect Edmund Blacket.[State Library NSW]  
   
   

Female School of Industry. Macquarie Street, 1832
Female School of Industry. Macquarie Street
Engraving - William Wilson, 1832
1.4. Mary Ann Howell (d/o Samuel)born 22/10/1818,[560] baptised 1818, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 27/12/1876, Wellington Street (now Chelmsford Street), Kingston, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia (56yo).[428] (Indexed as MacGraith.[4])
"McGrath. December 27, at her residence, Wellington-street, Kingston, Newtown, the beloved mother of Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, and daughter of the late Samuell Howell, also step-sister to the late Mrs. Kippax, of this city, aged 56.(SMH 29/12/1876)"[427,428]
"McGrath - Dec 27, Kingston, mother of Joseph McGrath, and daughter of the late Samuel Howell, aged 56.(SMH 20/1/1877)"[448]
Buried 29/12/1876, Rookwood Cemetery Sydney, NSW, Australia.[517]
"The friends of the late Mrs. McGrath are respectfully invited to attend her Funeral; to move from her late residence, Wellington-street, Kingston, Newtown, this (Friday) afternoon, at half-past 2 o'clock, and proceed to Newtown Station; from thence, per train, to the Necropolis, C. Boots, Undertaker, Hordern-street, Newtown Road.
The friends of Joseph McGrath, Hairdresser, are invited to attend the Funeral of his deceased mother, Mary McGrath; to move from her late residence, Wellington-street, Kingston, Newtown, this day, Friday, at 2 o'clock.
The friends of W. Goddard, Boatbuilder, are invited to attend the Funeral of his mother-in-law, Mrs. McGrath; to move from her late residence, Wellington-street, Kingston, Newtown, this day, Friday, at 2 o'clock.
The friends of Robert Kennedy, Boat-builder, Mort's Dock, Balmain, are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved mother-in-law, Mrs. Mary Ann McGrath; to move from her late residence, Wellington-street, Kingston, Newtown, this afternoon, at 2, for Necropolis. C. Boots.
The friends of Mrs. James Gaherty are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of her late beloved mother, Mrs. McGrath; to move from her late residence, Wellington-street, Kingston, Newtown, this (Friday) afternoon, at 2 o'clock, for Necropolis. E. Boots, Undertaker, Newtown.(SMH 29/12/1876)"[517]
On 12/6/1828 Mary, listed as both 10yo & 12yo and with parents as both Samuel & Bridget Howell and Samuel & Bridget Cassidy, was admitted to the Sydney School of Industry (orphanage).[520] By 1832 Bridget appears to have either been released from her sentence or at least placed on 'home detention', and was claiming to be the wife of Andrew Gillis.[560] On 27/3/1832 Bridget Howell petitioned to have her daughter, Mary (no age or father listed), returned to her custody.[520] On 8/5/1832, the following responses were recorded against Bridget's petition:
"I believe the within named party Bridget Howell Mr and Mrs Gallice to be an industrious Man/Woman and fully able to maintain the child (Wm Wilkes)."[560]
"I am not aware of any objection to the above mentioned persons- they keep a little shop and appear to be industrious- but as the woman signs herself Howell, it might be well to ascertain whether her name be really Howell or Gallice. The woman says they were married by Father Therry (William Cowper)."[560]
On 27/8/1832 A. Gillice, claiming to be Mary's parent or guardian, filed a request to Mary to be returned to her custody.[520] Bridget's 2nd partner was Andrew Gillis (also recorded as Gibbs).[560]
Married John Michael McGrath, 1836, St Mary, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] John born c.1813 & died 15/8/1884, Narrabri, NSW, Australia (70yo).[4,545]
"McGrath - August 15 at Narrabri, John Michael McGrath, the dearly beloved father of Jane Grave, of Sydney, aged 72 years.(Town & Country 23/8/1884)"[545]
In 1828 John, who 'came free' in 1814 on the "Catherine", was living with William Mahoney, Appin, NSW, Australia.[425] John was the s/o Ann Hayes alias Magrath, who was sentenced Co Limerick, Ireland, to 14 years transportation, 31yo at the time.[425] By 1822 Ann had a Ticket of Leave and was married to William Mahoney.[425] John was a butcher, 1858-1865.[569] Resided 1858, 1861, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[569] Resided 1863-1865, Parramatta Road, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[569] Resided 1875,1876, Campbell Street, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[569] Resided 1876, Wellington Street, Kingston, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[428,448,517]

Children of Mary Ann Howell & John McGrath:
i.
 
Ann McGrath, baptised 1837, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1854 & burial registered St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism & burial recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's}
ii.

John M. McGrath, baptised 1839, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's} Died 1859, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
iii.

Margaret McGrath, baptised 1841, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1841 & burial registered St James, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia (inf).[4] {Baptism & burial recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's}
iv.

Jane Francis McGrath,[4] probably born c.1840. Died 1932, Sydney, NSW, Australia (d/o John & Mary).[4] Married Joseph Grave, 1862, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Joseph, s/o John & Mary, died 6/12/1898, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,544]
  "Grave - In loving and affectionate memory of my dear husband, Joseph Grave, youngest son of the late Captain John and Mary Kitson Grave, of Maryport, England, and for over 30 years of the A.S.N. and A.U.S.N. Company, died December 6, 1898. Inserted by his sorrowing wife, Jane Grave.
Grave - In loving memory of our darling father, Joseph Grave, youngest son of the late Captain John and Mary Kitson Grave, of Maryport, England, and for over 30 years of the A.S.N. and A.U.S.N. Company, died December 6, 1898. Inserted by his affectionate daughters, Sissy Martin and Blanch O'Brien.
Grave - In loving memory of our dearest father, Joseph Grave, youngest son of the late Captain John and Mary Kitson Grave, of Maryport, England, and for over 30 years of the A.S.N. and A.U.S.N. Company, died December 6, 1898. Inserted by his affectionate children William, Florrie, Emma, and Daisy Grave.(SMH 6/12/1899)"[544]

 
Resided 1880, 1884,  No.12 Judge Street, Woolloomooloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[542,543] Resided 1890, 'Orlando', 66 Womerah-avenue, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[513,518]
Children: (a)
 
Ritson W. Grave, born 1863, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1863, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Mary J. Grave, born 1865, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1865, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Theresa Grave, born 1867, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1911, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married John H./S. Martin, 1892, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
George Martin, born 1902, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1902, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Mary Ann Martin, born 1903, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1903, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Mary E. Martin, born 1904, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1904, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Doris Martin, born 1906, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1906, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Royal G. J. Martin, born 1909, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1909, Chastwood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Joseph Ritson Grave, born 1869, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1874, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) Blanche Grave, born 1871, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Thomas P. O'Brien, 1894, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Thomas, s/o John & Ruby, died 1910, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd John Murphy, 1915, Annandale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
John M. O'Brien, born 1895, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) William Grave, born 1873, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Edith Smith, 1902, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) Florence Jane Grave, born 1875, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married John H. Parrott, 1901, Springwood, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Leslie J. Parrott, born 1902, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Keith H. Parrott, born 1903, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(h) Emma Caroline Grave, born 1877, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1968, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married William Arthur K. Pidgeon, 1901, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] William, s/o William & Louisa, died 1957, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Donnie W. Pidgeon, born 1902, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Roma Pidgeon, born 1908, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alexander Leiper, 1939, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(i) Daisy Grave, born 19/12/1880, Judge Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,542] "Graves - December 19, at her residence, 12, Judge-street, the wife of Joseph Graves, of twin daughters.(SMH 22/12/1880)"[542] Died 1906, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia (as Daisy Grave).[4]
(j) Lilly Grave, born 19/12/1880, Judge Street, Woolloomooloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,542] "Graves - December 19, at her residence, 12, Judge-street, the wife of Joseph Graves, of twin daughters.(SMH 22/12/1880)"[542] Died 1881, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(k) Harold Rene Clarence Peter Grave, born 1884, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1884, Woolloomooloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
  "The friends of Joseph Grave are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his dearly beloved infant son, Harold Rene Clarence Peter; to move from his residence, Judge-street, Woolloomooloo, this day, Friday, at a quarter to 2 o'clock, for Necropolis. W. Kinsela, Undertaker, Oxford-street.
The friends of Mr. Grave are invited to attend the Funeral of his dearly beloved child, Harold Clarence Graves, No. 22, Judge street, Woolloomooloo, at half-past 1 o'clock, to Rookwood. Mrs. W. Kinsela, Undertaker, 118, Oxford-street, near Palmer-street; and 74, William-street.(SMH 20/6/1884)"[543]
 
v.
55 Elizabeth St, Paddington
55 Elizabeth St, Paddington
Photograph - Google StreetView
Theresa (Theresa) McGrath, baptised 1843, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's} Died 28/4/1910, No.55 Elizabeth Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia (d/o John M. & Mary A.).[4,539,540]
"Gaherity - April 28, 1910, at her residence, 55 Elizabeth-street, Paddington, Theresa Gaherity, aged 66 years. At Rest.(SMH 30/4/1910)"[539]
Buried 30/4/1910, Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[540]
"Gaherity -The Funeral of the late Mrs. Theresa Gaherity will leave her late residence, 55 Elizbeth street Paddington this day (Saturday) at 2-30 P m. for St Francis RC Church Paddington, thence after service to Waverley Cemetery. W. Carter, Undertaker, Waverley.
Gaherity - The friends of Miss Gaherity are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of her dearly loved mother to leave her late residence 55 Elizabeth-street, Paddington this day (Saturday) at 2.30p.m. for St Francis R C Church Paddington, thence after service to Waverley Cemetery.
Gaherity - The Friends of Mr and Mrs G. C. Szarka and family are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their dearly loved mother and grandmother, Theresa Geherity to leave 55 Elizabeth-street Paddington this day (Saturday) at 2.30 p m. for St Francis R.C Church, Paddington.
Gaherity - The Friends of Mrs. A. Gaherity and family are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their dearly loved mother and grand mother Theresa Gaherity to leave 55 Elizabeth street Paddington this day (Saturday) at 2.30 p m. for St Francis R C Church Paddington.
Gaherity -The friends of Miss Ivy Harrison are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of her dearly loved grandmother Theresa Gaherity, to leave 55 Elizabeth street Paddington this day Saturday at 2.30 p.m. for St Francis RC Church, Paddington, thence after service to Waverley Cemetery.
Gaherity -The Friends of Mr and Mrs. Kennedy and Mr and Mrs M Shying are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their dearly loved sister and aunt Mrs. T Gaherty to leave her late residence 55 Elizabeth street Paddington this day at 2 30 for the Waverley Cemetery.
Gaherity -The Friends of Mr and Mrs. J. McGrath and family are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their dearly loved aunt Theresa to move from her late residence 55 Elizabeth street Paddington, for Waverley Cemetery this day saturday at 1/2 past 2 o'clock.(SMH 30/4/1910)"[540]
"Gaherity - A tribute of undying love to the memory of darling mother and grandma, Theresa Gaherity who passed peacefully away April 28, 1910. Silently, peacefully, angels bore her; Into the beautiful mansions above; There she is resting from all sorrow for ever; Safe in the arms of God's infinite love. Sadly missed by her sorrowing daughter, Blanche, and grandaughter, Ivy Harrison.
Gaherity - A tribute of everlasting love and remembrance to my darling mother and grandma, Theresa Gaherity, who departed this life April 28, 1910, at her late residence, 55 Elizabeth-street, Paddington. They miss you most who loved you best, R.I.P. Inserted by her ever-sorrowing daughter and son-in-law, Adelaide and George Szarka, also grandchildren, Norman und Theresa Szarka.
Gaherity - In ever sad and loving memory of dear ma, who died April 28, 1910. R.I.P. Life's remembrance lasts for ever. Sincerely and deeply mourned by Amy.
Gaherity - In sad but ever-loving memory of our darling aunt, Theresa Gaherity, who departed this life April 28, 1910. In memory ever dear. Inserted by her loving nieces, Naomi Bennetts and Maud Fittler.(SMH 30/4/1910)"[541]
Married James Gaherity, 1862, Sydney, NSW, Australia (indexed as Thomson McGrath).[4] James died 1915, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia (76yo).[4] Resided 1910, No.55 Elizabeth Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[539,540]
Children: (a)
 
Albert James Garretty, born 1863, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 10/6/1906, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
  "Gaherity - In ever loving remembrance of my devoted husband and our loving father, Albert James Gaherity, who died June 10th, 1906. Semper Fidelis. Inserted by his loving wife Grace, and children Eileen and Gordon.
Gaherity - A tribute of everlasting love to the memory of our dearly loved son and brother, Albert J. Gaherty, who passed away peacefully on June 10, 1906, fortified In the rites of his Church. Sincerely mourned by his sorrowing mother, Theresa Gaherity, brother and sister, Will and Blanche. RIP.
Gaherity - A token of everlasting love to the memory of our beloved brother Albert who died 10th June, 1906. Inserted by his sister and brother in law Adelaide and George Szarka, also nephew and nieces, Norman and Theresa Szarka and Ivy Harrison. RIP.
Gaherity - In sad but loving memory of my dear cousin, Albert J Gaherity, who died June 10th, 1906. At rest. We see not now thy loving face, We miss, dear Al, thy gentle voice. Inserted by his loving cousin Naomi.
Gaherity - A loving tribute to the memory of our ever dear friend, Albert (Al), who fell asleep on June 10th, 1906. Rest. Sincerely mourned and remembered by Amy and Nurse.(SMH 10/6/1907)"[538]
 
Married Gertrude Ellen Crowley, 1882, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Gertrude, d/o Michael & Jane, died 1938, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Reised 1883, 8 James Terrace, Livingstone Road, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[537]
Children: (1)
 
William H. B. Galherity, born 9/8/1883, Livingstone Road, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,537]
  "Gaherity - August 9, at her parents residence, No. 8 James's-terrace, Livingstone-road, Marrickville, the wife of Albert James Gaherity of a son.(Town & County 25/8/1883)"[537]  
(2)
Gordon Douglas W. Gaherity.[4] Died 1945, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Daisy Garrity, born 1888, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1888, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) Ida M. A. A. Gaherity, 1896, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) Mona Gaherity, born 1902, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Maud Maud Gaherity, born 1865, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1911, Coast Hospital, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia (44yo).[4] Married Ernest Fraser Harrison, 31/8/1884, Holy Trinity, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.[535,536]
  "Harrison-Gaherity - August 31. at Holy Trinity Church, Valley, Brisbane, by the Rev. Herbert Guinness, Ernest Fraser Harrison, Captain A. B. N. Company, second son of Charles Matthew Harrison, late Bombay Civil Service, to Maud Mary, eldest daughter of James Gaherity, Newtown, Sydney. No cards.(SMH 23/9/1884)"[535]  
Ernest, s/o Charles & Mary, died 1898, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Ivy Australia Harrison, born 22/8/1889, Queensland, Australia.[536] Married Leslie F. Green, 1913, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Emily J. Gaherity, born 1867, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1868, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) William Henry Bernard Gaherity, born 1869, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1944, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia (age incorrectly indexed as 63yo).[4] Married Lucy E. S. H. Pateman, 1895, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] (Lucy married 2nd Richard Shea, 1914, Annandale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]) Married 2nd Amelia Hummel, 1907, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Violet I. Gaherity, born 1896, Balmain South, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Iris J. Gaherity, born 1902, Manly, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) Blanche Theresa Gaherity, born 1871, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1949, Sydney, NSW, Australia (unmarried).[4]
(f) Emma Jane Gaherity, born 1875, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) Adelaide E. Gaherity.[4] Died 1916, Sydney, NSW, Australia (d/o James & Theresa).[4] Married George C. Szarha,[4,538] 1895, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] George, s/o George, died 1924, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Norman J. B. Szarka, born 1896, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Rita Lillian Callanmder, 1924, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Rita, d/o William & Edith, died 1939, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Theresa O. L. Szarka, born 1900, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Normal L. Ireland, 1922, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Veronica M. Szarka, born 1903, Liverpool, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1903, Liverpool, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
vi.

Mary Ann McGrath, baptised 1845, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's} Died 1939, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Robert Kennedy, 1862, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Robert was a boat-builder, Mort's Dock, Balmain, 1876.[517] Resided 1890, 45 Ridge-street, Moore Park, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[513]
Children: (a)
 
Louisa J. Kennedy, born 1864, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Robert E. Kennedy, born 1866, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Ernest A. Kennedy, born 1869, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1946, Balmain, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Ambrose Kennedy, born 1871, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Florence Crawford, 1895, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) William A. Kennedy, born 1873, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Grace Mary Kennedy, born 1876, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married William P. Feeney, 1897, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) Clarence Frank Kennedy, born 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1950, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Mary McLachlan, 1925, Manly, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(h) Susan Kennedy, born 1879, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married James L. O'Neil, 1898, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Ida M. O'Neil, born 1904, Moree, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
John K. O'Neil, born 1903, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Rebecca M. O'Neil, born 1905, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) James L. O'Neil, born 1909, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(5) William H. O'Neil, born 1912, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
vii.
35 Hopetoun St, Paddington
35 Hopetoun Street, Paddington
Photograph - Google StreetView
Bridget McGrath, baptised 1848, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's} Died 19/5/1916, Hopetoun street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,533]
"Donovan - May 19, 1916, at 35 Hopetoun street, Paddington, Bridget, dearly loved wife of Patrick Donovan (late of Hay and Forbes), aged 66 years. RIP.(SMH 20/5/1916)"[533]
Reported 5/12/1877, Bridget Goddard, was treated at the Sydney Infirmary for a wound on the right side of hand (SMH 5/12/1877).[530]
On 5/12/1877, "Emma Roberts was summarily convicted of having assaulted Bridget Goddard by striking her on the head with a tin pot or dish, then by inflicting a wound, and was sentenced to pay a penalty of 40s. Mr. Carroll, who conducted the defence, said that under his advice the witnesses for the prosecution would be proceeded against for perjury.(SMH 6/12/1877)"[531]
Reported 9/12/1878, "A young sailor named James Lacy was found guilty of using indecent conduct and language towards Bridget Goddard, a married woman, in George-street, and fined £5 or three months.(SMH 9/12/1878)"[532]
Married William Reuben Goddard, 1869, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] William, s/o George & Eliza, died 1916, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] William was a boatbuilder, 1876, 1916.[517,528] William, s/o Gerorge & Eliza,[4] died 12/2/1916, West Crescent Street, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,528]
"Goddard - February 12, 1916, at his late residence, 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, William Reuben Goddard, boat builder, aged 68. At rest.
Goddard - February 12, 1916, at his late residence, 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, William Reuben Goddard, the dearly beloved father of Mrs J Bennetts, 35 Hopetoun street, Paddington. A patient sufferer at rest.(SMH 14/2/1916)"[528]
Buried 14/2/1916, Church of England Cemtery, Gore Hill, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[529]
"Goddard - The friends of the late William R. Goddard are invited to attend his funeral; to leave 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, this day, at 3 p.m. for Church of England Cemtery, Gore Hill. Wood Coffill and Company, Ltd.
Goddard - The friends of the late William Reuben Goddard are kindly invited to attend his funeral; to leave 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon at 3 o'clock for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mr H G Goddard are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of his dearly beloved brother William Reuben Goddard; to leave 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, THIS (Monday) afternoon, at 3 o clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mr and Mrs. W. J. Goddard are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their dearly beloved father, William Reuben Goddard, to leave 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mr and Mrs H. A. Goddard are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their dearly beloved father, William Reuben Goddard, to leave his late residence, West Crescent steet, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon, at 3 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mr and Mrs J. Bennetts are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their dearly beloved father, William Reuben Goddard, to leave his late residence, West Crescent street, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon at 3 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mr and Mrs J. Goddard are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their dearly beloved father, William Reuben Goddard, to leave his late residence, West Crescent street, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon at 3 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mr H. C. Goddard are kindly invited to attend the funeral of his dearly beloved father, William Reuben Goddard, to leave 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon at 3 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - The friends of Mrs J. Grave are kindly invited to attend the funeral of her dearly beloved brother-in-law, William Reuben Goddard, to leave 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, this (Monday) afternoon at 3 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill.
Goddard - G.U.O.O.F., St Leonard's Lodge, No.1087. The officers and members of the above lodge are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of our late Brother William R. Goddard; to move from his late residence, 8 West Crescent street, North Sydney, this day, at 3 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Gore Hill. Albert J. Shead, N.G., William Shead, Secretary.(SMH 14/2/1916)"[529]
Married 2nd Patrick Donovan, 1916, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1890, 1893, Berry's Bay, North Shore, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[513,518] Patrick, s/o Patrick & Annie, died 1917, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[4] & buried 11/5/1917, Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[534]
"Donovan - The Friends of the late Mr. Patrick Donovan (late of State Penitentiary, Long Bay) are kindly invited to attend his Funeral; to leave 35 Hopetoun-street, Paddington, this day, Friday, at 2.15 p.m., for Waverley Cemetery. W. Carter. Undertaker. Waverley.
Donovan - The Friends of Miss Gladys Donovan are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of her beloved fahter; to leave 35 Hopetoun-street, Paddington, this day, Friday, at 2.15 p.m., for Waverley Cemetery. W. Carter, Undertaker. Waverley.
Donovan - The Friends of Mrs. J. Graves are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of her beloved brother-in-law, Patrick Donovan; to leave 35 Hopetoun street, Paddington, this day, Friday, at 2.15 p.m., for Waverley Cemetery.
Donovan - The Friends of Mr. and Mrs. J. Bennetts are kindly invited to attend the funeral of the late Mr. Patrick Donovan; to leave 35 Hopetoun-street, Paddington, this day, Friday, at 2.15p.m., for Waverley Cemetery. W. Carter, Undertaker. Waverley.(SMH 11/5/1917)"[534]
Resided 1916, No.8 West Crescent Street, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.[528,529] Resided 1916,1917, 35 Hopetoun Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[533,534]
Children: (a)
 
William Joseph Goddard, born 1871, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1944, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
infant Goddard, born 1872, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Henry G. Goddard.[4] Died 1874, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Naomi Rosalie Goddard, born 1875, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1939, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married James Bennetts, 1902, Mudgee, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1916, 35 Hopetoun Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[528]
Children: (1)
 
Raymond James Bennetts, born 1905, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1967, Campsie, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alice I. Hurst, 1926, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd Iris E. M. Cole, 1929, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 3rd Joyce Berkeley Knight, 1939, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) Hubert Arthur S. Goddard, born 1877, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Maude Eveline E. Goddard, born 1878, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married John Adam Fittler, 1904, Mudgee, NSW, Australia.[4] John, s/o John & Alice, died 1943, Murwillumbah, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Thelma G. M. Fittler, born 1906, Mudgee, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Walter C. Tibbles, 1926, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Evelyn Fittler, born 1909, Wallerawang, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1909, Wallerawang, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Naomi Fittler, born 1910, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1910, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) William R. Fittler, born 1910, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1910, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) Percival Francis R. Goddard, born 1880, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1882, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(h) Harold C. R. Goddard, born 1884, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(i) Horace Cleveland John Goddard, born 1887, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1957, Sutherland, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Annie May Frost, 1907, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Annie, d/o Otto & Mary, died 1914, Sutherland, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married 2nd Clara Kitt, 1923, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Clara, d/o Charles & Mary Ann, died 1976, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Edna M. Goddard, born 1909, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Horace Cleveland John Goddard, born 1913, Sutherland, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1959, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Beryl Joyce Lemaire, 1938, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Lawrence S. Goddard, born 1917, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(j) Stanley R. Goddard, born 1888, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1914, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia (unmarried).[4]
(k) Gladys Eileen Goddard, born 1894, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1953, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia (unmarried).[4]
viii.
Oxley Street, Bourke, c.1920
Oxley Street, Bourke, c.1920
Photographer unknown
Joseph Aloysius McGrath, baptised 1851, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia (father John M).[4] {Baptism recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's} Died 8/1/1890, Bourke, NSW, Australia.[4,513,518] Cause of death was heat apoplexy.[518]
"McGrath - January 8, 1890, died suddenly, at Bourke, Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, late of George-street West, aged 38 years, leaving a sorrowing wife and two children to mourn their loss. R.I.P.
McGrath - January 8, 1890, died suddenly, at Bourke, Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, late of 14, George-street West, the dearly beloved brother of Mrs. J. Grave, of 66, Womerah-avenue, Darlinghurst, aged 38. R.I.P.
McGrath - January 8, 1890, died suddenly, at Bourke, Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, late of George-street West. the dearly beloved brother of Mrs. Robert Kennedy, of 45, Ridge-street, Moore Park, aged 38 years. R.I.P.
McGrath - January 8, 1890, died suddenly, at Bourke, Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, late of 14, George-street West, the dearly beloved brother of Mrs. W. Goddard, of Berry's Bay, North Shore, aged 38. R.I.P.(SMH 9/1/1890)"[513]
"McGrath - January 8, 1890, died suddenly, at Bourke, Joseph McGrath. hairdresser, late of George-street West, the dearly beloved husband of Elizabeth McGrath, of 87, Regent-street, Chippendale, aged 38. R.I.P.
McGrath - January 8, 1890, died suddenly at Bourke, Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, late of George-street West, the dearly beloved father of Joseph McGrath of, 6, George street West, aged 38. R.I.P.(SMH 13/1/1890)"[513]
"McGrath - In fond and loving memory of my dearly beloved husband, Joseph McGrath, who departed this life, suddenly, at Bourke, January 8th, 1890, aged 38 years. Beloved by all who knew him. Inserted by his affectionate wife, Elizabeth McGrath.
McGrath - In fond and loving memory of our dear father, Joseph McGrath, who departed this life January 8th, 1890, suddenly, at Bourke. Inserted by his everloving sons, Joseph and Arthur.
McGrath - In loving remembrance of my dear brother, Joseph Aloysius McGrath, who died suddenly at Bourke of heat apoplexy, leaving an affectionate wife and two sons to mourn their loss. Inserted by his loving sister, Mrs. W. B Goddard, North Shore.
McGrath - In loving remembrance of my dearly-beloved brother, Joseph McGrath, who died suddenly at Bourke, January 9th, 1890. Inserted by his loving sister. Jane Grave, Orlando, Womerah-avenue, Darlinghurst. Oh for the touch of a vanished hand, or the sound of a voice that is stilled.(SMH 9/1/1893)"[518]
On 8/11/1888 Joseph, hairdresser, 14 George-street, Sydney, was fined 60s for non-attendance as a juror (SMH 9/11/1888).[513] Hairdresser, 1870, 1876, 1880, 1888, 1890.[428,513,514,515,516,517] Married Elizabeth Ann Gullen, 1870, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1870, Newtown Road, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[515] Resided 1877, No.5 Regent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[519] Resided 1880, No.1 Regent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[516] Resided 1888, 1890, No.14 George Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[514,513,518] Elizabeth resided 1890, No.87, Regent Street, Chippendale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[513]
Children: (a)
 
Joseph William McGrath, born 9/12/1870, Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,515] "On the 9th instant, at her parents' residence, Pitt-street, the wife of Joseph McGrath, hairdresser, of Newtown Road, of a son.(SMH 17/12/1870)"[515] Died 1940, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Sophia Mary Fatzens, 1891, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1890, 6 George Street West, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[513]
Children: (1)
 
Elizabeth Ann McGrath, born 1891, Redfern, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Percy R. Berensen, 1925, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Minnie M. McGrath, born 1893, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Philip F. Walsh, 1920, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Joseph Edward McGrath, born 1895, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1979, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Gladys C. Taylor, 1924, Waverley, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(4) William McGrath, born 1898, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1974, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Ernest Albert McGrath, born 1872, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1874, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Annie Matilda McGrath, born 1874, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Henry Frederick McGrath, born 1876, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1877, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Buried 8/10/1877, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[519]
  "The friends of Mr. Joseph McGrath are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved son, Henry; to move from his parents' residence, No. 5, Regent-street, this (Monday) afternoon, at half-past 2 o'clock, to the Necropolis. C. Kinsela and Sons, George-street, op Christ Church, and Oxford-st.(SMH 8/10/1877)"[519]  
(e) Richard G. McGrath, born 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Arthur J. McGrath, born 1882, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(g) infant McGrath, born 1886, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1886, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
ix. Samuel McGrath, baptised 1855, St Mary's, Roman Catholic, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Baptism recorded in BMD index as St James RC, which refers to the secular geographical parish of St James. The BMDs were actually recorded at St Mary's} Died 1858, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]

     
St Mary's RC Cathedral, 1848
St Mary's RC Cathedral, 1848
Engraving - Joseph Fowles
Chelmsford Street, Newtown
Chelmsford Street, Newtown
Photograph - Google StreetView
Maitland Street, Narrabri, c.1870s
Maitland Street, Narrabri, c.1870s
Photographer unknown
  The Female School of Industry. During 1826, advertisements appeared in the Sydney Gazette heralding the establishment of a third asylum for neglected children, the Female School of Industry. It was set up as a private institution based on voluntary support – on the British voluntary principle of charity control – rather than as a government institution like the two older orphan schools. It was run by a Ladies' Committee led by Eliza Darling, wife of the governor, rather than by a committee of government-appointed officials. The school took in girls from the age 10 to 14 to train them for domestic service. It was established in Macquarie Street in a spacious two-storey Georgian building on a site where the Mitchell Library now stands. Later moved in the 1870s to Darlinghurst Road, into a building designed for the purpose, the Female School of Industry continued to produce domestic servants of various kinds until the mid-1920s. Between 1801 and 1826, a system of child institutionalisation had been firmly established in Sydney and centralised there to cater for the whole colony. It comprised the compulsory detention of the individual until early adulthood (at the time, mainly 14 or 15 years of age), subsequent apprenticeship of long duration, monotonous industrial work within the asylum, with removal from all 'immoral and evil influences'. It was a dormitory system of child management with its concomitant mass feeding of a dull uniform diet and a rigid authoritarian form of schooling and training. Once the child became an inmate, parents were relatively powerless to assert their rights. The future destiny of their child was in the hands of the State. Children attending these asylums were readily labelled by the small Sydney community as objects of public charity. The future low social rank of the children was thus assured. By the 1830s with the strong revival of transportation, the two government orphan schools were rearranged into the Roman Catholic and Protestant Orphan Schools, along sectarian lines but still controlled and supported by the government. The Female Orphan School became the Protestant Orphan School, and the Male Orphan School (which was by this time at Liverpool) became the Roman Catholic Orphan School. Both of these newly-structured institutions housed both boys and girls in segregated dormitories. They lasted until the late 1880s. The Female School of Industry was formally dissolved in 1926.[RootsChat, Dictionary of Sydney] St. Mary's Cathedral was commenced under the auspices of the Rev. J. J. Therry, the first stone having been laid by Governor Macquarie in 1821. Considering the state of the Catholic religion at that period, and the limited means then existing in the Colony, it must be admitted to have been a noble effort of the worthy founder; it was considered even by many most zealous friends to the cause, as far too extensive an undertaking, and the great length of time taken in the erection proved the justness of their opinions; however by the unceasing efforts of a few individuals all these difficulties were surmounted, and the noble edifice erected. The Church is a vast and lofty pile, in the pointed Gothic style of Architecture, extremely plain and devoid of ornament, yet imposing from its situation and magnitude; the interior however still remains uncompleted. Beneath the Church foundation has been excavated and fitted up as private apartments for religious students, etc. The Church having been erected on rising ground; these apartments are on a level with the gardens on the east side, whilst the floor of the Cathedral is a little above the level of the street on the west. On the north side have been erected cloisters, (of a much more ornamental character than the Church itself) connecting the private residence of the Archbishop and priests, with the Cathedral. Adjoining the latter is the very elegant and beautifully finished private chapel of His Grace the Archbishop; the windows are of stained glass, and the seats are of the finest cedar, richly and elaborately carved and polished. Opposite the entrance to this chapel is the library, well stored with valuable books.[Sydney in 1848] Newtown, a suburb of Sydney's inner west is located approximately four kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district. Newtown was established as a residential and farming area in the early 19th century. The area took its name from a grocery store opened there by John and Eliza Webster in 1832, at a site close to where the Newtown railway station stands today. They placed a sign atop their store that read "New Town Stores". The name New Town was adopted, at first unofficially, with the space disappearing to form the name Newtown. Part of the area north of King Street, was originally part of Camperdown. This area was named by Governor William Bligh who received it as a land grant in 1806 and who passed it to his daughter and son-in-law on his return to England in 1810. In 1848 part of this land was acquired by the Sydney Church of England Cemetery Company to create a general cemetery beyond the boundary of the City of Sydney. Camperdown Cemetery, just one block away from King Street, Newtown, was to become significant in the life of the suburb. Between its consecration in 1849 and its closure to further sales in 1868 it saw 15,000 burials of people from all over Sydney. In 1862 the Municipality of Newtown was incorporated and divided into three wards: O'Connell, Kingston and Enmore, covering 480 acres. Although there are a few earlier buildings in Newtown, the most rapid development came in the late 19th century, with many former farms and other large properties being subdivided and developed as row-houses, known popularly as "terrace houses". With their predominance of Victorian-era houses with stuccoed facades, balconies of iron lace and moulded architectural ornaments. From about 1870 onwards, Newtown had a large proportion of its residents living in terrace houses of the cheapest possible construction, much of which was "two-up two-down", with rear kitchen, some having adjoining walls only one brick thick and a continuous shared roofspace. Hundreds of these terrace houses still remain, generally 4 metres wide. It was not uncommon for speculative builders to build a row of these small houses terminating in a wider house at the corner of the street, this last being a commercial premises, or "Corner Store". During the Federation period, single storey row houses became increasing common. From the late 19th century onwards, the Newtown area became a major commercial and industrial centre. King Street developed into a thriving retail precinct and the Newtown area was soon dotted with factories, workshops, warehouses and commercial and retail premises of all kinds and sizes. The North Kingston Estate Heritage Conservation Area is one of the earliest urban developments in the Newtown area. Its dense urban pattern was created in a single subdivision of 190 acres of the Kingston Farm in 1854, with most of the properties being further divided into narrower lots in successive years. The Area contains a wide range of modest 19th-century workers housing from the Victorian period with some infill cottages and terraces from the Federation, Inter-War and more recent periods. The Area also includes a very good group of middle-class Victorian houses.[Wikipedia, North Kingston Estate Heritage Conservation Area] Narrabri is a town in the North West Slopes, New South Wales, Australia, located on the Namoi River, 521km  northwest of Sydney. As a result of the geography of Narrabri and the surrounding areas, Narrabri township is quite prone to flooding. It is the centre of a major cotton growing industry. Other agricultural industries in the area include wheat, beef and lamb. Before the arrival of the Europeans in the early 19th century, Narrabri was the home of the Kamilaroi people, who still constitute a significant part of the local population. Narrabri derives its name from an early property in the district called the Narrabry Run. The most common Aboriginal meaning for Narrabri is forked waters. History credits explorers Sir Thomas Mitchell and Allan Cunningham with the honour of opening the way to the North West plains, to the area that is now known as Narrabri Shire. However the notorious George ‘the Barber’ Clarke, whose epithet refers to his early legitimate trade, was the first white man to seek his fortune in the area. Clarke was convicted of armed robbery, for goods totalling 40 shillings, and shipped from England in 1825 sentenced to work on a farm near Singleton, NSW. Soon after his arrival he escaped, painted himself black, took two aboriginal wives and wandered the plains naked with the natives, stealing cattle. Upon his recapture in 1831 Clarke related stories of a deep, wide navigable river called the Kindur, which flowed into a vast inland Sea. The imaginative tale may have been invented in an attempt to save his life, but it was plausible enough to prompt Sir Thomas Mitchell to press out into a virtually unknown area. The Kindur was never discovered, but when the rivers rise in the great floods the land becomes akin to an inland sea. Mitchell’s explorations paved the way for the early settlers and wealth came to the area ‘on the sheep’s back’ and the cattle’s pastures.[Wikipedia, Visit Narrabri]  
     
Judge St, Woolloomooloo, c.1900
Judge St, Woolloomooloo, c.1900
Photograph - City of Sydney
66-70 Womerah Ave, Darlinghurst
66-70 Womerah Ave, Darlinghurst
Photograph - Google StreetView
Holy Trinity, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane
Holy Trinity, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane
Photographer unknown, 1886
  Woolloomooloo is a harbourside, inner-city eastern suburb of Sydney. The suburb is located in a low-lying, former docklands area at the head of Woolloomooloo Bay, on Sydney Harbour. The suburb has historically been a poorer working class district of Sydney. This has changed only recently with recent gentrification of the inner city areas of Sydney. The redevelopment of the waterfront, particularly the construction of the housing development on the Finger Wharf, has caused major change. Areas of public housing still exist in the suburb. The current spelling of Woolloomooloo is derived from the name of the first homestead in area, Wolloomooloo House, built by the first landowner John Palmer. The name is thought to have been aboriginal in origin. After the First Fleet's arrival in Sydney, the area was initially called Garden Cove or Garden Island Cove after the nearby small wooded Garden Island, off the shore. The first land grant was given to John Palmer in 1793 to allow him to run cattle for the fledgling colony. In the 1840s the farm land was subdivided into what is now Woolloomooloo, Darlinghurst and parts of Surry Hills. Originally the area saw affluent residents building grand houses, many with spectacular gardens, attracted by the bay and close proximity to the city and Government House. The area slowly started to change after expensive houses were built in Elizabeth Bay and further east and a road was needed from Sydney. It was for this reason that William Street was built, dividing the land for the first time.[Wikipedia] Darlinghurst is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, located immediately east of the Sydney central business district. Darlinghurst is a densely populated suburb with the majority of residents living in apartments or terraced houses. Once a slum and red-light prostitution district, Darlinghurst has undergone urban renewal since the 1980s to become a rather upmarket, cosmopolitan and diverse area. The suburb was originally known as Eastern Hill and then Henrietta Town, after Governor Lachlan Macquarie's wife, whose second name was Henrietta. The loyalties changed with the change of governors and the suburb became Darlinghurst in honour of Elizabeth Darling, the popular wife of Governor Ralph Darling, during the early 19th century. The 'hurst' is an old English word for a wooded area. Darlinghurst Gaol, the large sandstone penal complex in the middle of Darlinghurst was built between 1836 and 1840. The large sandstone walls still bear convict markings, and the complex features six wings surrounding a circular chapel.[Wikipedia] Paddington is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney. In the early 1820s, ex-convict entrepreneur and gin distiller Robert Cooper set out to build a grand Georgian estate at the top of Paddington's ridgeline, affording excellent views. He named the area Paddington after a London borough. He called the estate Juniper Hall, which remains Paddington's oldest home. The district's first cottages were built around Victoria Barracks, formerly a major army base. In the latter part of the 19th century, many terrace houses were constructed to house the city's burgeoning working population and an emerging middle class. Over time, these houses filled up almost every parcel of land, causing the suburb to become overpopulated. The unfashionable nature of the suburb continued until the mid-1960s, when gentrification took hold. The suburb is characterised by an array of interconnecting streets and laneways, some too narrow for many of today's cars.[Wikipedia] Marrickville, a suburb of Sydney's Inner West is located 7 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district. Marrickville sits on the northern bank of the Cooks River. The name Marrickville comes from the 60 acre 'Marrick' estate of Thomas Chalder, which was subdivided in 1855. He named it after his native village Marrick, North Yorkshire, England. Marrickville became a municipality in 1861. The first school opened in August 1864 and the post office opened in 1865. The railway line to Bankstown opened in 1895. The station was known as Illawarra Road during construction. Later, when it was decided that Marrickville was a more appropriate name, the original Marrickville station was renamed Sydenham. Many Marrickville homes are detached or terraced Victorian houses built in the late 19th century and many others were built in the Federation style in the early 20th century.[Wikipedia]  
   
Mort's Dock, Balmain, 1870s
Mort's Dock, Balmain, 1870s
Photographer unknown
41(R)-45 Ridge St Surry Hills
41(R)-45 Ridge St Surry Hills
Photograph - Google StreetView
10 West Crescent, St Leonards
10 West Crescent, St Leonards
Photograph - Google StreetView
 

Mort's Dock is a former dry dock, slipway, and shipyard in Balmain, Sydney. It was the first dry dock in Australia, opening for business in 1855 and closing more than a century later in 1959. Mort's Dock was the brainchild of industrialist Thomas Sutcliffe Mort and former steamship captain T.S. Rountree. Steam ships had first appeared in Sydney Harbour in 1853 but no repair or maintenance facilities existed to cater for the new vessels. In 1854, Mort and Rountree purchased an area of land at Waterview Bay on the northern side of the Balmain peninsula and excavated a dry dock measuring 123 by 15 metres. The dock opened in March 1855, a year before the Royal Navy's Fitzroy Dock at Cockatoo Island. Despite being the only commercial repair facility for steamers, the dock was not as profitable as expected and by 1861 Mort and Rountree had leased the majority of the surrounding land for cargo storage, minor engineering and an iron and brass foundry. In 1867, Mort's Dock became principally an engineering facility; including the construction of steam locomotives, ship machinery, mining equipment and steel pipe for the Sydney Water Board. The Mort's Dock and Engineering Company was formed in 1872, but Thomas Mort himself withdrew from active participation immediately afterward, and management devolved to dock manager James Franki. James Peter Franki continued to manage the dock for 50 years finally retiring in 1922. Ship construction and repairs continued at the dry dock and immediate surrounds, and in 1901 the company opened a second dry dock and slipway at Woolwich to cater for demand for commercial vessels and ferries. The outbreak of World War II proved to be a boom time for Mort's Dock. The 1920's and 1930's had seen a decline in the Royal Australian Navy with few vessels constructed and older ships sold off or scrapped. By the end of the war Mort's Dock was second only to the Cockatoo Island dockyard in the number of naval vessels produced. Shipbuilding once again declined in the post-war period, and revenue from engineering leases fell as firms relocated to cheaper land in western Sydney. Mort's Dock closed in 1958, Mort's Dock and Engineering Company went into liquidation in 1959, and ceased trading completely in 1968. The derelict Mort's Dock site was levelled and converted into a container storage terminal for ships berthing at Glebe Island and White Bay. In 1989, the container terminal was closed and the site transformed into a waterfront park. The remaining features of Mort's Dock were listed on the NSW Heritage Register in the same year. The filled-in dry dock is commemorated in the name of the adjacent Dry Dock Hotel, which stands opposite the former location of the gates to the original Mort's Dock site.[Wikipedia] Surry Hills is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, in the state of NSW, Australia. Surry Hills is located immediately south-east of the Sydney central business district. The first land grants in Surry Hills were made in the 1790s. Major Joseph Foveaux received 105 acres. His property was known as Surry Hills Farm, after the Surrey Hills in Surrey, England. Commissary John Palmer received 90 acres. He called the property George Farm and in 1800 Palmer also bought Foveaux's farm. In 1792, the boundaries of the Sydney Cove settlement were established between the head of Cockle Bay to the head of Woolloomooloo Bay. West of the boundary, which included present-day Surry Hills, was considered suitable for farming and was granted to military officers and free settlers. Due to the hilly terrain, much of the suburb was considered remote and 'inhospitable'. In the early years of the nineteenth century the area around what is now Prince Alfred Park was undeveloped land known as the Government Paddocks or Cleveland Paddocks. A few villas were built in the suburb in the late 1820s. The suburb remained one of contrasts for much of the nineteenth century, with the homes of wealthy merchants mixed with that of the commercial and working classes. In 1820, Governor Macquarie ordered the consecration of the Devonshire Street Cemetery. A brick wall was erected before any interments took place to enclose its 4 acres. Within a four year period the cemetery was expanded by the addition of 7 acres to its south. A road was formed along the southern boundary of the cemetery in the first half of the 1830s and was called Devonshire Street. The Devonshire Street cemetery, where many of the early settlers were buried, was later moved to build the Sydney railway terminus. Terrace houses and workers' cottages were built in Surry Hills from the 1850s. Light industry became established in the area, particularly in the rag trade (clothing industry). It became a working class suburb, predominately inhabited by Irish immigrants. The suburb developed a reputation for crime and vices. The famous Sydney underworld figure Kate Leigh (1881–1964), lived in Surry Hills for more than 80 years. Surry Hills was favoured by newly arrived families after World War II when property values were low and accommodation was inexpensive. From the 1980s, the area was gentrified, with many of the area's older houses and building restored and many new upper middle-class residents enjoying the benefits of inner-city living.[Wikipedia] Chippendale is a small inner-city suburb of Sydney, located on the southern edge of the Sydney central business district. William Chippendale was granted a 95-acre estate in 1819. It stretched to the present day site of Redfern railway station. Chippendale sold the estate to Solomon Levey, emancipist and merchant, in 1821, for 380 pounds. Solomon Levey died while in London, in 1833. Levey's heirs sold over 62 acres to William Hutchinson. The western side of Chippendale is mainly residential. Chippendale has the lowest open space per person of any Sydney suburb.[Wikipedia] Bourke is a town in the north of New South Wales, Australia. The town is located approximately 800 km northwest of Sydney, on the south bank of the Darling River. The first white explorer to encounter the river was Charles Sturt in 1828 who named it after NSW Governor Ralph Darling. It was not until the mid-1800s following a visit by colonial surveyor and explorer Sir Thomas Mitchell in 1835 that settlement of the area began. Following tensions with the local people Mitchell built a small stockade to protect his men and named it Fort Bourke after then Governor Richard Bourke. This first crude structure became the foundation for a fledgling community with a small number of agricultural and livestock farms established in the region shortly afterwards. The area truly started to flourish when its location on the Darling River had it recognised as a key trade centre, linking the nearby outback agricultural industries with the east coast trade routes via the Darling River. Bourke was surveyed for a town in 1869 and soon established itself as the outback trade hub of New South Wales with several transportation industries setting up branches in the town. By the 1880s Bourke hosted a Cobb & Co. Coach Terminus, several paddle boat companies running the Darling and by 1885 Bourke was connected to the rail network. As trade moved away from river transport routes, Bourke's hold on the inland trade industry began to relax. Whilst no longer considered a trade centre, Bourke serves instead as a key service centre for the states north western regions. In this semi-arid outback landscape, sheep farming along with some small irrigated cotton crops comprise the primary industry in the area today. Bourke is considered to represent the edge of the settled agricultural districts and the gateway to the Outback which lies north and west of Bourke. This is reflected in a traditional east coast Australian expression "back o' Bourke", referring to the Outback.[Wikipedia]  
     
     

Area of 432 (on L) Kent St, Sydney, 1870s
Area of No.432 (on left) Kent St, Sydney
Photograph - Charles Bayliss, 1870s
1.1.1. David Howell (s/o Henry, s/o Samuel), baptised 1827,[4,205] St James, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 28/5/1905, Percival Road, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia (77yo).[4,148,484] "Death While Asleep. Sydney, Thursday. David Howell (77), a resident of Petersham, died yesterday, suddenly, while asleep.(Barrier Miner 1/6/1905)"[464]
"By the death of Mr David Howell of Percival road Petersham another very old colonist has been removed. The late Mr Howell died suddenly in his sleep on Sunday morning last at the ripe age of 77 years. He was born in Sydney in 1828 and except for a visit made to California in 1849 in search of gold he has been a resident of Sydney. He had a varied experience in his younger days, especially on the early goldfields in the neighbourhood of the Ophir and Turon Rivers. Thirty seven years he received an appointment in H. M. Customs, and he remained in the Government service for 28 years. He has left a widow, five sons, and one daughter. Mr Henry Howell, manager for Howard Smith Company Limited, is the eldest son, Mr David Howell, and Alderman Charles Howell, of Nyngan and Cootamundra respectively are also sons. The late Mr David Howell was a nephew of the late Sir Daniel Cooper.(SMH 1/6/1905)"[484]
Viola Terrace, Riley Street, Surry Hills
Viola Terrace, Riley Street, Surry Hills
Photographer & date unknown
Buried 30/5/1905, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148,463]
"Howell - The Friends of the late Mr David Howell (late of H M Customs) are kindly invited to attend his funeral which will leave his late residence, Werima, Percival road, Petersham, this (Tuesday) afternoon at 1.45pm for the Church of England Cemetery, Necropolis, via Petersham Station. Wood & Company.
Howell - The Relatives and Friends of Mr David Howell and family are kindly invited to attend the funeral of her late dearly loved husband, and their father, David Howell, which will leave his late residence Werima, Percival road, Petersham this (Tuesday) afternoon at 1.45 o'clock, for the Church of England Cemetery, Necropolis, via Petersham Station.(SMH 30/5/1905)"[463]
Storekeeper employed by Edward Hill, Pitt Street, Sydney, 1846.[482] Clerk, 1846 {probably the same occupation as above}.[483] Gold prospector, 1849, California, USA.[484] Goldminer, Ophir & Turon Rivers, NSW, Australia, 1850s.[484] Employed by Her Majesty's Customs, 1868-1896.[463,484] Landing waiter, Her Majesty's Customs, 1870.[480,487] In 1846 David was a witness in a burglary case:
"Charge of Burglary and Robbery. James Alexander McKay, a youth apparently about 16 or 18 years of age, was charged by Mr. Edward Hill, of Pitt-street, with robbing his desk of £23. The history of the case was as follows : Mr. Hill having occasion to leave town, ordered the accused to sleep on his premises during his absence, and place the horses (of which he had charge) in the paddock; a key was also placed in the desk that was in possession of the accused, and which had never been there before. Mr. David Howell stated that he was storekeeper to Mr. Hill, and on Monday night saw everything safe; saw the prisoner put the key in the desk, and which had no lock, ten minutes before he left the premises; the money was then in the desk, and he had no opportunity of taking it without witness's knowledge; he subsequently saw all safe, and locked the outer door. Next morning, when he arrived at the store, he found that the money had been taken; the door had not been touched, but an entrance was effected by bursting the shutter of an upper window which contained no glass. There not being sufficient evidence to fix the guilt on the prisoner, he was discharged.(Bell's Life 7/3/1846)"[482]
Between 1848-1891 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
In 1848 David was the owner-occupier of a house at No.432 Kent Street, Sydney, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £20.[571]
In 1851 & 1852 David was the owner-occupier of a house on Kent Street, Sydney, built of brick with a shingled roof, no assessed annual value listed.[571]
In 1854 David was the owner-occupier of a house at No.127 Kent Street, Sydney, having 1 floor, 2 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571]
In 1856 David tennanted a house at No.206 Sussex Street, Sydney, owned by W. W. Whittington, having 1 floor, 3 rooms, built of wood with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £65.[571]
In 1863 David tennanted a house at No.32 Windmill Street South Side, Sydney, owned by William Ford, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of stone with a shingled roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571]
In 1867 David tennanted a house at No.33 Crown Road, Sydney, owned by Thomas Chapman, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of stone with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £70.[571]
In 1871 David tennanted a house at No.477 Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, owned by John Baptist, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £50.[571]
In 1877 David tennanted a house at No.473 Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, owned by John Baptist, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £45.[571]
In 1880 David tennanted a house at No.334 Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, owned by A. Corben, having 2 floors, 6 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £41.[571]
In 1882 David tennanted a house at No.28 Merriman Street, Sydney, owned by Peter Davis, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £36.[571]
In 1891 David tennanted a house at No.28 Merriman Street, Sydney, owned by Mrs. Davis, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £39.[571]
Married 1846, Mary Ann Pinkston, Scots Church Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] {Marriage also indexed as Mary Ann Girard.[4]} Mary, d/o Charles & Sarah, died 30/10/1870, Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia (45yo),[4,148487] & was buried with her husband, 1/11/1870, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148,480]
"On the 30th October, at her residence, 477, Riley-street, Mary Ann, the beloved wife of Mr. David Howell, landing waiter in her Majesty's Customs, leaving an affectionate husband and six children to mourn their loss.(SMH 5/11/1870)"[487]
"The friends of Mr. David Howell, Landing Waiter, of her Majesty's Customs, are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his deceased wife, Mary Ann; to move from his residence, No. 477, Riley-street, Surry Hills, this afternoon, at half-past 2 o'clock, and proceed to the Necropolis. Thomas, Undertaker, 141, York-street, near Wesleyan Chapel.(SMH 1/11/1870)"[480]
On 25/6/1846 James Sullivan was sentenced for assaulting Mary after attempting to collect over-due rent:
"A young man named James Sullivan, was sentenced on Thursday, to pay a fine of Twenty shillings, for assaulting Mary Anne Howell, the wife of David Howell, clerk, residing in Kent-street. Mrs. Howell stated that the defendant came to her house on Monday, and threatened to put bailiffs into it for a balance of rent due. Not being at all partial to those kind of officials, she told Sullivan that he should do no such thing, that she would not allow balilifs to be put in her house. This roused Mr. Sullivan's ire to such a pitch, that he struck her two blows with his closed fist on the mouth.(Chronicle 27/6/1846)"[483]
Married 2nd Margaret S. Richardson, 10/2/1874, Albion Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,485]
"Howell-Richardson — Feb. 10, at the residence of the Rev. Thomas Johnson, Albion-street, David Howell, of Riley-street, to Margaret, third daughter of Mr. H. Richardson, of Woollahra, Sydney.(SMH 21/3/1874)"[485]
Margaret, d/o Humphrey & Elizabeth, died 1920, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1846, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[483] Resided 1848, No.432 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided (David) 1849, California, USA.[484] Resided 1851 & 1852, Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1854, No.127 Kent Street, Millers Point, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1856, No.206 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1863, No.32 Windmill Street South Side, Millers Point, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1867, No.33 Crown Road, Woolloomooloo, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1870,1871, No.477 Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[480,485,490,571] Resided 1874, Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[485,490] Resided 1875, No.3 Viola Terrace, Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[481] Resided 1877, No.473 Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1880, No.334 Riley Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1882, 1891, No.28 Merriman Street, Millers Point, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1905, Werima, Percival Road, Petersham (Stanmore), Sydney, NSW, Australia.[463]

Children of David Howell & Mary Ann Girard/Pinkston:
i.
 
Mary Ann Howell, born 1846, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1918, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married David Hunter, 23/9/1871, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,490]
  "On the 23rd September, at the residence of the bride's father, 477, Riley-street, Surry Hills, by the Rev. Dr. McGibbon, David, son of the late Mr. John Hunter, watchmaker, Bathurst, to Mary Ann, eldest daughter of Mr. David Howell, of H. M. Customs.(SMH 10/10/1871)"[490]  
David, s/o John, died 1906, Granville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (a)
 
David Henry Hunter, born 1873, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1952, Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Sarah J. Hockley, 1894, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Charles Alfred Hunter, born 1874, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1933, Mental Hospital, Wyong, NSW, Australia (58yo).[4] Married Violet A. Fall, 1906, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) George A. Hunter, born 1876, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Mary A. Heffernan, 1905, Annandale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Stella Eliza Hunter, born 1880, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1948, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Robert Mitchell, 1904, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) Percival John Hunter, born 1883, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1958, Campsie, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Elizabeth Harvey, 1916, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Milton Hunter, born 1886, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1962, Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Ivy Alethea Lane, 1915, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Ivy, d/o Walter & Lillian, died 1970, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
ii.

Henry Howell, 1913
Henry Howell, 1913
Sydney Morning Herald
Henry Howell, born 1849, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 8/1/1913, Sydney Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,510,511]
"Late Mr Henry Howell. Prominent Shipping Manager. Mr Henry Howell, of Te Roma, Woolwich road, Hunter's Hill, died last evening. Deceased was for over 20 years manager of the shipping firm of Messers Howard Smith and Co. Ltd. Mr Howell was 63 years of age, and was born in New South Wales. He entered the shipping business 38 years ago as wharf manager for Messers Howard Smith and Co. Ltd. He was afterwards appointed manager in Sydney, a position which he held for over 20 years. Last year he was granted six months' leave of absence and this expired on Decem ber 31, 1912. He then retired from the firm, and it was only yesterday that he visited the office, and was made the recipient of a presentation from the members of the staff on the occasion of his retirement. Mr Howell was always a favourite with the members of the staff of the firm, and during yesterday's function he was visibly affected. He had been suffering from heart trouble for some time, and had been attended by Dr Lloyd, of Hunter's Hill. The presentation was made at 5pm yesterday, and at 6.25 pm, while he was passing the premises of Messrs Paling and Co, in George-street, he suddenly collapsed. He was removed to Sydney Hospital, where life was pronounced extinct. Mr Howell leaves a wife, a married daughter (Mrs A. Howard Smith), a single daughter (Vera), and a son (Claude), the latter being employed with the same company.(SMH 9/1/1913)"[510]
"Late Mr Henry Howell. Mr. Henry Howell, whose death occurred suddenly on Wednesday evening, was a prominent figure in shipping circles in the city. He entered the service of the Howard Smith Company, Ltd, 35 years ago as wharf manager. He was with the firm almost from the stages of its infancy, and, keeping pace with its rapid growth, attained the position of manager, which he held for over 20 years. During the year 1906 he was elected chairman of the Steamship Owners' Federation. He was also a director of the Howard Smith Company, Ltd for some time, and frequently visited Melbourne in connection with the firm's business. Besides being a man of strong individuality and undoubted abillty, Mr Howell was recognised by the members of the staff under his control as a man who always studied their interests. In the course of a speech he delivered about an hour before his death, on the occasion of a presentation made to him by the staff, Mr Howell referred in glowing terms to the assistance he had received from the older members, a number of whom were present. About three years ago Mr Howell, accompanied by Mrs Howell and his daughter, Miss Vera Howell, paid a visit to England by the RMS Marmora. He leaves a wife, two daughters, one of whom is Mrs Howard Smith, and a son, Claude, who is also in the employ of the same firm.(SMH 10/1/1913)"[511]
Buried 10/1/1913, Presbyterian section, Gore Hill Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[512]
"Funeral of Mr Henry Howell Large and Representative Gathering. The remains of the late Mr Henry Howell, general manager of Howard, Smith and Co, were interred in the Presbyterian section of the Gore Hill Cemetery yesterday afternoon in the presence of a very large and representative gathering. The chief mourners were Messrs Claude Howell (son), C. Howell (brother), A. Howard Smith (son-ln-law), T. Howell, R. Price, Charles Howell (nephews), W. Goff, and R. Goff (brothers-in-law). The Howard Smith Company was represented by Captain Gerritt Smith. Messrs R. R. Murdoch, H. A. Feather, J. Seddon, O. R. Thornthwaite, and members of the general staff. Others present included Captain T. Langley Webb (president Steamship Owners' Federation), Captain Vine Hall, Captain Balfour, Captain South (Queensland), Captain Ghost, and Captain Bird, Messrs D. Mills (Union Steamship Company of New Zealand), A. W. Reid (Melbourne Steamship Company), H. M. Lethbridge (Adelaide Steamship Company), W. A. McMaster (A.U.S.N. Company), N. C. Stapledon (McIlwraith, McEacharn and Co), A. L. Miller (Illawarra Company), F. N. Jackson, E. H. Aldous (Townsville), E. Warburton, E. Killip (Royal Insurance), J. H. Hodge, H. R. Colborne, J. Anderson, J. Bell (Bell and Fraser), A. Muddle, S. Barton, J. Robers, G. S. Littlejohn (Scott Henderson and Co), E. D. Gray (Paul and Sons), A. Crane (Crane and Sons), Percy Minell, J. Ramsay (Nord-Deutscher Lloyd), A. Dalton (Wallaco and Co), W. Harding, F. J. Thomas (Newcastle and Hunter River Co), J. F. Franki, Davies and Moylan (Mort's Dock), Bennett, G. Snow, W. G. Todd (Sydney Ferries), and C. E. Smith (secretary of the Steamship Owners Federation and Oversea Shipping Representatives Association). The Service at the graveside was conducted by Rev R Jackson.(SMH 11/1/1913)"[512]
Manager for Howard Smith Company Limited, 1905.[484] Between 1882-1902 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
In 1882 Henry tennanted a house at No.111 Pyrmont Street, Sydney, owned by Mills & Pile, having 2 floors, 4 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £46.[571]
In 1902 Henry tennanted a house at No.398 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, owned by Perpetual Ttee Co, having 2 floors, 5 rooms, built of brick with a slate roof and an assessed annual value of £39 (with note 'Rutland Street').[571]
Married Julia Goff, 1881, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Julia, d/o Evans & Rebecca, died 1934, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1882, No.111 Pyrmont Street, Pyrmont, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1902, No.398 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571] Resided 1913,Te Roma, Woolwich Road, Hunter's Hill, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[510]
Children: (a)
 
Claude Howell, born 1883, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1965, Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Mabel Jean Otton, 1919, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Mabel, d/o Frank & Catherine, died 1976, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Ada Howell, born 1884, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Austin H. Smith, 1906, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Vera Howell, born 1890, Leichardt, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
iii.

108 Cameron St, Rockdale
108 Cameron St, Rockdale
Photograph - Google StreetView
David Howell, born 1851, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 4/11/1930, No.108 Cameron Street, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW, Australia (79yo).[4,148,508]
"Howell -November 4 1930 at 108 Cameron street, Rockdale, David Howell, beloved husband of Mary Howell and loving father of Clifford (deceased), Reginald (deceased), Essie (deceased), Cecil and Maud (Mrs A Williamson). In his 80th year. Sadly missed.(SMH 5/11/1930)"[507]
"In Memoriam.
Howell - In loving memory of my dear husband and our father, David Howell, who passed away November 4, 1930. Inserted by his loving wife, son, and daughter.
Howell - In fond memory of our dear father, David, who passed away November 4, 1930. Today recalls sad memories. Of a loved one gone to rest. Inserted by his loving daughter and son-in-law.(SMH 4/11/1931)"[508]
Buried 5/11/1930, Church of England Section 3, Row 33, plot 1831-1832, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148,509]
"Howell - The Relatives and Friends of Mrs. David Howell and family are invited to attend the Funeral of her beloved husband and their father, David to leave his late residence 108 Cameron-street, Rockdale, this Wednesday at 2 p.m., for Church of England Cemetery, Rookwood. by road. Motor funeral. Wood Coffill Limited, Motor Funeral Directors.
Howell - The Relatives and Friends of Mr. Charles Howell and sons are invited to attend the Funeral of his beloved brother and their uncle, David Howell to leave 108 Cameron street, Rockdale. this Wednesday at 2 p.m., for Church of England Cemetery, Rookwood. by road. Motor Funeral. Wood Coffill Limited.(SMH 5/11/1930)"[509]
Married Amelia Edwards, 5/12/1878, St David's, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,489]
"Howell-Edward - December 5, at St. David's Church, By the Rev. J. D. Langley, David Howell, second eldest son of David Howell, of Riley-street, Surry Hills, to Amelia, eldest daughter of John Edward, of Stanley-street, Woolloomooloo.(SMH 4/1/1879)"[489]
Amelia, d/o John & Amelia, died 1891, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
"Howell - November 20, 1891, at the residence of her father, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, Amelia, the beloved, wife of David Howell, jnn., aged 35 years.(SMH 21/11/1891)"[488]
Buried 21/11/1891, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148,491]
"The friends of Mr. David Howell, Jun., are invited to attend the funeral of his late beloved wife, Amelia, to move from the residence of her father, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, this (Saturday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o'clock sharp, to Necropolis Chas. Kinsella, 110 Oxford-street and 765 George-street.
The friends of Mr. David Howell, Sen, are invited to attend the Funeral of his late deceased daughter-in-law, to move from her father's residence, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, this (Saturday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o clock sharp, to Necropolis Chas Kinsella, 765 George-st, opp Christ Church.
The friends of Henry and George Howell are invited to attend the Funeral of their late deceased sister-in-law, to move from the residence of her fathcer, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, this afternoon (Saturday), at half-past 1 o clock sharp, to Necropolis. Charles Kinsella, 110 Oxford-street.
The friends of Mr. and Mrs Hunter are invited to attend the Funeral of their late beloved sister and sister-in-law, Mrs Amelia Howell, to move from her father's residence, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, this (Saturday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o'dock sharp, to Necropolis. Charles Kinsella, 765 George-st.
The friends of Mr. John Edwards, Sen., are invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved daughter, Mrs Amelia Howell, to move from his residence, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, this (Saturday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o'clock sharp, to Necropolis. Charles Kinsella, 116 Oxford-street, and Rockdale.
The friends of Ada, John, David, and Sydney Blackhall Edwards are invited to attend the funeral of their late deceased sister, Mrs Amelia Howell, to move from her father's residence, 29 Oatley-road, Paddington, this (Saturday) afternoon, at half-past 1 o'clock sharp, to Necropolis. Charles Kinsella.(SMH 21/11/1891)"[491]
Married 2nd Mary Jarvis, 1895, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Mary, d/o Thomas & Avice, died 15/11/1934, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[4,148] & buried with her husband, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Resided 1905, Nyngan, NSW, Australia.[484] Resided 1930, No.108 Cameron Street, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[509]
Children: (a)
 
Clifford Howell, born 1879, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1917, Muswellbrook, NSW, Australia.[4]
On 13/1/1906 Clifford lost part of his foot in a railway accident:

  "Clifford Howell, fireman, while endeavouring to mount the engine of the mall train at Narrabri on Saturday night, fell, and the wheels passed over one of his foot, severing it at the instep.(Town & Country 17/1/1906)"[506]  
Married Catherine Elizabeth Burnley, 1907, New Lambton, NSW, Australia.[4] Catherine married 2nd George Hutchinson, 1921, New Lambton, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Sydney Clifford Howell, born 1908, New Lambton, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1957, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Hilda Marjorie Hinchliffe, 1929, Merewether, NSW, Australia.[4] Hilda, d/o David & Olinda, died 1977, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Nathalie J. Howell, born 1911, Wickham, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Myrven C. Blackwell, 1932, New Lambton, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Reginald Howell, born 1914, Wickham, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1973, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Marjorie Amelia Ellis, 1938, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Cecil David Howell, born 1881, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1956, Campsie, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married May Annie French, 1905, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Annie, d/o Henry & Annie, died 1971, Burwood, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Beatrice M. Howell, born 1909, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1921, Annandale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Phyllis Howell, born 1909, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Jack Howell, 1935, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Jack, s/o Frank & Letitia (below), born 1907, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) Beatrice Maude Howell, born 1882, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Beatrice died 30/9/1946, Hurstville, Sydney, NSW, Australia (63yo).[4,148] Buried with her parents, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Married Andrew Peter Williamson, 1919, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Andrew died 1972, Concord, Sydney, NSW, Australia (82yo).[4]
(d) Reginald Howell, born 1885, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1909, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) Frank Howell, born 1888, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1889, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Essie Howell, born 1890, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1919, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Edward W. Rice, 1915, St Peters, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
iv.

Eliza Howell, born 1855, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 12/8/1875, Riley Street, Surrry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,148,481]
  "Howell - August 12, at 3, Viola-terrace, Riley-street, Surry Hills, Eliza, the beloved daughter of David Howell, aged 20 years.(SMH 13/8/1875)"[481]  
Buried with her parents,14/5/1875, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,148,486]
  "The friends of Mr. David Howell, Landing Waiter, H. M. C., are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his deceased beloved daughter, Eliza; to move from his residence, No. 3, Viola-terrace, Surry Hills, on Saturday afternoon, 14th instant, at half-past 2 o'clock, to Necropolis. Thomas, Undertaker, York-st.
The friends of Messrs. Henry and David Howell, Jun., are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of their beloved sister., Eliza; to move from her late residence, No.475, Riley-street, Surry Hills, on Saturday afternoon, 14th instant, at half- past 2 o'clock, to Necropolis. Thomas, Undertaker.(SMH 13/8/1875)"[486]
 
v.

23 Percival Rd, Stanmore
23 Percival Rd, Stanmore
Photograph - Google StreetView
Charles Howell,[573] born 1857, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 23/8/1933, 23 Percival Road, Stanmore, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,148,506] Alderman, Cootamundra, Shire, 1905.[484]
"Howell- August 23, 1933, at his residence, 23 Percival-road, Stanmore, Charles Howell (late of Cootamundra), relict of the late Hannah Louisa Howell, and beloved father of Frank, Dave, Charlie (deceased), and Mary (deceased), aged 76 years. At rest.(SMH 24/8/1931)"[500]
"Mr. Charles Howell, who died suddenly at his son's residence, Percival-road, Stanmore, yesterday morning, was 76 years of age, and had been for many years in business at Cootamundra. He was one of the foundation members of the Cootamundra Trotting Club, and a member of the Cootamundra Agricultural Society, had been an alderman of the Cootamundra Council, and had taken a prominent part In the activities of local sporting bodies generally. He is survived by two sons - Mr. Frank Howell, secretary of the New South Wales Trotting Association, and Mr. D. Howell. The interment will take place at the Church of England portion of Rookwood Cemetery this afternoon, following a service at the home.(SMH 24/8/1931)"[501]
Buried with his parents, 24/8/1933, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148,502]
"The remains of Mr Charles Howell (father of Mr Frank Howell, secretary of the New South Wales Trotting Club), were interred in the Church of England portion of the Rookwood cemetery yesterday. The services at the home and at the graveside were conducted by the Rev P J Evans. The chid mourners were the two sons Messrs Frank and David Howell. The New South Wales Trotting Association was represented by Messrs E. W. Gordon and F. P. Morris (vice presidents), W. Lamrock and M. Mackenzie (committeemen), M. Donnellan, C. Wainwright, A. Wainwright, J. Culbert MLC, James Culbert, J. C. Hall, J. Ward, H. York, C. Zoeller and C. Wise (members). The Royal Agricultural Society was represented by Messrs A. J. Playfair, H. Skuthorpe and A. Gee (vice presidents), A. J. Rafferty (secretary), and P. Heron (grounds overseer). Mr R. Rowe (secretary) represented the Rosehill Racing Club. Cootamundra public bodies were represented by Messrs R. Munro, C. Arrowsmith, J. Tebay, G. Barry and S. H. Corby. Among others present were Messrs W. Simpson (president of the Granville Agricultural Society), B. Taylor (president of the Castle Hill Agricultural Society), A. Moxham (manager of the Pitt street branch of the Bank of New South Wales), S. O. Barnes (secretary of the Harbour Trust), A. Horton, G. Hunter, B. Rooke, D. Hunter, W. Brown, J. Taylor, W. King, G. Potter, W. Bird, H. Cohen, J. H. Hogan, G. Black, G. Keighery, W. Staniforth, J. T. Watts, W. Bird, J. Reid, E. Gillespie, G. West, J. Solomon, H. Brewer, R. Lawler, R. Stephenson, P. Hoskins, N. Kyle, G. Hungerford, G. Elliott, P. Paine. T, Dowswell, B. Heathwood, M. Sydenham, A. W. Swadling, B. Russell, C. Long, L. J. O. Smith, G. Broughton, R. Higgs, J. Pritchard, W. B. Small, J. Simmons, C. Dickson, P. Wilson, K. Henderson, J. Walsh, T. Rogers, S. Watson, H. Moore, P. Molloy, W. Gellling, L. Cross, W. Terrell and many others.(SMH 25/8/1933)"[502]
Probate for the estate of Charles Howell was granted to his sons, David & Frank, 1933:
"In the Supreme Court of New South Wales, Probate Jurisdiction. In the Will of Charles Howell, late of Number 23 Percival road, Stanmore, near Sydney in the State of New South Wales, Gentleman deceased. Application will be made after fourteen days from the publication hereof that Probate of the last Will and Testiment of the abovenamed deceased may be granted to Frank Howell and David Howell, the Executors named in the said Will and all notices may be served at the offices of the undersigned. All creditors in the Estate of the deceased are hereby required to send in particulars of their claims to the undersigned within the fourteen days aforesaid. Barry Norris and Wildes, Solicitors for the Executors, Cathcart House, 11c Castlereagh street, Sydney.(SMH 6/9/1933)"[503]
Married Hannah Louisa Ball, 1881, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Hannah, d/o Richard & Hannah, died 6/9/1909, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[4,148] & buried with her husband, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Resided 1882-1905, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4,484] Resided 1915, 1917, Byrne Street, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[573] Resided 1918, Yass Road, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[573] Resided 1921, 1922, 1933, 'Werrima', No.23 Percival Road, Stanmore, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148,506,573]
Children: (a)
 
Frank Howell, born 1882, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 24/4/1947, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,148,505] Secretary of the New South Wales Trotting Association, 1933.[501] Mason.[148]
  "Howell, Frank- 24th April 1947, at St Vincents Hospital. Frank Howell of 19 St Neots Ave, Potts Point, dearly beloved husband of Letitia Mary and loved father of Jack, Heath and Louise (Mrs Lees). Aged 65 years.(SMH 26/4/1947)"[504]
"Ex-H.P. Official Dies Suddenly. Mr. Frank Howell, a former secretary of the N.S.W. Trotting Club, collapsed while driving a car in College Street yesterday, and died shortly afterwards in St. Vincent's Hospital. He retired from the position, which he had held for 20 years, in 1942. because of ill-health. Nevertheless, he was able to attend most of the club's meetings. Before he came to Sydney, to follow the late Mr. R. Hungerford as secretary, Mr. Howell was secretary of the Cootamundra Trotting Club. During his service in Sydney many important changes in the N.S.W. Trotting Club were made. The Harold Park course, was re-modelled, the stands rebuilt, and the club embarked on its greyhound racing project.(SMH 25/4/1947)"[505]

 
Buried with parents, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Married Letitia Mary Heathwood, 1906, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.[4] Letitia, d/o James & Mary Annie, died 4/3/1959, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW, Australia (45yo),[4,148] & buried with her husband, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Resided 1947, 19 St Neots Ave, Potts Point, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[504]
Children: (1)
 
Jack Howell, born 1907, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Phyllis Howell, 1935, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Phyllis, d/o Cecil & May (above), born 1909, Penrith, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1940, No.160 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[573]
(2)
Heath Howell, born 1909, Petersham, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1977, NSW, Australia.[4]
(3) Louisa Howell, born 1915, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Vesey Carl Lees, 1940, Woolahra, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Mary Howell, born 1884, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1902, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) David Howell, born 1887, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1940, Hunters Hill, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Alma Thompson, 1912, Balmain North, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Alma, d/o Charles & Sarah, died 1949, Drummoyne, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (1)
 
David Charles Howell, born 1913, Annandale, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Dorothy Grace Brett, 1939, Drummoyne, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(2)
Alexander Thompson Howell, born 1915, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Jenny Salm, 1945, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d)
Sergeant Charlie Howell
Sergeant Charlie Howell
Photo - Web Matters
Charlie Howell, born 1/1892, Cootamundra, NSW, Australia.[4,5736] Died 5/7/1918, France (29yo).[148,573] Buried Plot 1, Row C, grave 27, Borre British Cemetery, Hazebrouck, France.[573] Charlie's gravestone reads: "Serjeant C. Howell 3936/1st Bn Australian Inf./5th July 1918/He sleeps beside his comrades/In an honoured grave/In France.[574] Memorial marker with parent's burial plot, Old Church of England, Section B, Row 4, plot 127-130, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[148] Will dated 19/7/1918:
"I, Charlie Howell, Regimental Number 3936 serving in 1st Battalion of the Australian Imperial Force do hereby revoke all former Wills made by me and declare this to be my last Will. I devise and bequeath all my real estate unto Charles Howell, Byrne St., Cootamundra absolutely, and my personal estate I bequeath to Charles Howell, Byrne St., Cootamundra. in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this Eighteenth day of July, AD 1917. C. Howell <signature>. Signed by the said testator as his last Will and testament the same having been read over and explained to him, in the presence of us both present at the same time who at his request and in his presence and in the presence of each other have subscribed our names as witnesses, Has. Dewar, structural engineer, of 9 Angus Street, Springburn, Glasgow, Scotland, and F. R. McBarron, C.S.M., Australian Imperial Force. N.B. Personal Estate includes Pay, Effects, Money in Bank, Insurance Policy, in fact everything except Real Estate. Certified to be a real copy of the Will of No.3936 Sgt. Howell, Charlie, 1st Battalion (deceased)."[573]
Joined the Australian Imperial Force, 15/8/1915. Enlisted at Holdsworthy Army base, Sydney, NSW, 30/8/1915 in the 12th Reinforcements, 1st Battallion, Australian Imperial Force (signed his name as Charlie Howell), rank of private.[573] At the time of enlistment Charlie was 23 years & 7 months old, height 5' 10.25", weight 154 pounds, fair complexion, brown hair, blue eyes, Church of England.[573] His occupation at the time was given as a buyer for an ironmongery warehouse. He had previously served for 6 months in the Fivedock Rifle Reserve.[573]
On 14/2/1916 arrived Tel-el-Kebir, Egypt, thence to Alexandria, Egypt, 22/3/1916. On 28/3/1916 disembarked at Marseilles, Frances. On 26/10/1916 was appointed Lance Corporal, in the field. On 10/12/1916 promoted to rank of Corporal (temp). On 6/2/1917 promoted to Corporal, France. On 30/4/1917 promoted to rank of sergent. On leave to England, 2/6/1917, returned to France from leave 17/6/1917. On 11/9/1917 transferred to Anzac Corps School, France. On 2/10/1917 rejoined 1st Battalion. On 30/12/1917 transferred to 1st Training Battalion, England (placed on supply list). On 14/1/1918 transferred to School of Instr., Jellalabad Barracks, Tidworth, England. On 31/1/1918 admitted to Isol. Hospital from Training Brigade, Sutton Veny, with scabies. On 15/4/1918 on command at Anti-Gas School, Chiseldon, Sutton Veny., England. On 1/5/1918 proceeded to France via Folkestone, England. On 6/5/1918 rejoined CO 1st Battalion, France. On 10/6/1918 was absorbed on strength of Btn vice 359. On 5/7/1918 was killed in action.[573]
Memorial scroll No.347695, British War medal No.27126 & Victory Medal No.347695 were issued to his father.[573]
Borre is a village 3 kilometres east of Hazebrouck. The cemetery was used from May to September 1918 by field ambulances and fighting Units, particularly those of the 1st Australian Division, during the interval between the German and Allied offensives of that year.[574]
The 1st Battalion was the first infantry unit recruited for the AIF in New South Wales during the First World War. The battalion was raised within a fortnight of the declaration of war in August 1914 and embarked just two months later. The battalion proceeded to Egypt, arriving on 2 December. The battalion took part in the ANZAC landing on 25 April 1915 as part of the second and third waves, and served there until the evacuation in December. Its most notable engagement at Gallipoli was the battle of Lone Pine in August. Two members of the battalion were awarded Victoria Crosses for their valour at Lone Pine. After the withdrawal from Gallipoli in December 1915, the battalion returned to Egypt where the AIF underwent a period of expansion and re-organisation. In March 1916, it sailed for France and the Western Front. From then until 1918 the battalion took part in operations against the German Army. The battalion's first major action in France was at Pozières in July 1916. Later the battalion fought at Ypres, in Belgium, before returning to the Somme in winter. At Bullecourt in May 1917, Corporal George J. Howell (not related) became the third member of the battalion to be awarded the Victoria Cross. In 1918 the 1st Battalion helped to stop the German spring offensive in March and April before taking part in the Hundred Days Offensive that was launched near Amiens on 8 August 1918. The battalion remained in the line until late September 1918, when they were withdrawn from the front along with the rest of the Australian Corps for rest and retraining in anticipation of further operations. Following the end of hostilities, the process of demobilisation began and slowly the battalion's numbers dwindled as its personnel were repatriated to Australia. They were finally disbanded in May 1919.[Wikipedia, Aust. War Memorial]
vi.
George Howell, born 1860, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1928, Queensland, Australia (s/o David Howell & Mary Ann Pinkstone).[559]

Children of David Howell & Margaret S. Richardson:
i.
 
Clyde Howell, born 1876, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1930, Gosford, NSW, Australia.[4]
  "In the Supreme Court of New South Wales - Probate Jurisdiction. In the Will of Clyde Howell late of Gosford in the State of New South Wales, News Agent, deceased. Application will be made after fourteen days from the date hereof that Probate of the last Will and Testament of the abovenamed deceased may be granted to Mary Janet Howell the sole Executrix in the said Will named. Any persons having any claim against the said Estate are required to send particulars thereof to the undersigned within such fourteen days. All notices may be served at the office of the undersigned. R. C. King Kemp, Proctor for the Executrix, Gosford.(SMH 28/2/1930)"[499]  
Newsagent.[499] Married Mary Janet Johnson, 1900, Gosford, NSW, Australia.[4] Mary, d/o John & Mary Janet, died 1939, West Maitland, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (a)
 
Ida Johnson Howell, born 1901, Gosford, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1980NSW, Australia.[4] Married Harold S. Boyd, 1927, Gosford, NSW, Australia.[4]

     
Goldminers, California, USA, 1849
Goldminers, California, USA, 1849
Photographer unknown
Clipper Ship 'Goldrush' Advertisement, 1850
Clipper Ship 'Goldrush' Advertisement, 1850
Artist unknown
Goldminer, California
Goldminer, California
Photographer unkonw, 1850
  The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The first to hear confirmed information of the gold rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and Latin America, and they were the first to start flocking to the state in late 1848. All in all, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" (as a reference to 1849), often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China. At first, the prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with little more than they had started with. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Miners lived in tents, wood shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships. Wherever gold was discovered, hundreds of miners would collaborate to put up a camp and stake their claims. With names like Rough and Ready and Hangtown (Placerville, California), each camp often had its own saloon and gambling house. Some of these gold-seekers were able to collect large amounts of easily accessible gold—in some cases, thousands of dollars worth each day. A person could work for six months in the goldfields and find the equivalent of six years' wages back home. The benefit to the forty-niners was that the gold was simply "free for the taking" at first. In the goldfields at the beginning, there was no private property, no licensing fees, and no taxes. By 1850, most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Faced with gold increasingly difficult to retrieve, Americans began to drive out foreigners to get at the most accessible gold that remained. The new California State Legislature passed a foreign miners tax of twenty dollars per month, and American prospectors began organized attacks on foreign miners. On average, half the gold-seekers made a modest profit, after all expenses were taken into account. Most, however, especially those arriving later, made little or wound up losing money.[Wikipedia]  
     
119-125 Kent St, Millers Point
119-125 Kent St, Millers Point
Photograph - Google StreetView
Ophir Diggings, Summer Hill Creek
Ophir Diggings, Summer Hill Creek
Artist - George French Angas, 1851
Sheep Station Point, River Turon, 1853
Sheep Station Point, River Turon, 1853
Lithograph - W. L. Walton
  The Australian gold rush started in 1851 when prospector Edward Hammond Hargraves claimed the discovery of payable gold near Bathurst, New South Wales, at a site Edward Hargraves called Ophir. Ophir is located near the Macquarie River northeast of the city of Orange. The Hatton brothers, Will and Jack, and Edward Hargraves found payable gold in February 1851 at the Ophir gold diggings, located at the confluence of Summer Hill Creek and Lewis Ponds Creek. Hargraves was awarded £10,500 by the NSW Government. Ophir was named after Jack Hatton's father, Ophir Hatton. The Turon River was the site of one of Australia's first alluvial gold rushes. During the gold rush Chinese migrant workers built a Water Race to bring water to mining operations along sections of the Turon River. Many parts of the Race can still be seen today from places like Turon Gates. The Turon was the site of violence between miners and licensing authorities during the gold rush.[Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Gold Net]  
   
Windmill St, Miller's Point, c.1907
Windmill St, Miller's Point, c.1907
Photograph - City of Sydney
31-35 Crown St, Woolloomooloo
31-35 Crown St, Woolloomooloo
Photograph - City of Sydney
473 & 471 Riley St, Surry Hills
473 & 471 Riley St, Surry Hills
Photograph - Google StreetView
  Millers Point is located on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, beside Darling Harbour, adjacent to The Rocks. A small mill that was owned by Jack Leighton was located here. The area became known as Jack, the Miller's Point. Windmill Street was one of the first streets in Miller's Point, running to three windmills operated by Jack Leighton from c.1815. In 1833 Governor Bourke granted the Catholic Church land at Millers Point for the construction of a school house that could serve as a chapel on Sundays. The Colonial Architect, Ambrose Hallen in consultation with Bishop Ullathorne, designed the school building which was completed by May, 1835. It was a one story building constructed in sandstone with two rooms that could be opened into one. St Brigid's Millers Point is the oldest existing place of Catholic worship in Australia. The school was closed in 1992 but the church continues to be used by the local community. The current Sydney Observatory building on Observatory Hill was completed in 1858 by English astronomer and clergyman William Scott. Two separate pubs in the area claim to be Sydney's oldest surviving pubs, the Lord Nelson at Millers Point and the Fortune of War nearby at The Rocks.[Wikipedia, City of Sydney] Surry Hills. By the early 1830s a village had begun to take shape, accelerated by the economic boom of the 1830s, which saw mercantile profits increasingly turned to investment in land. Subdivisions began to occur. Because of its proximity to the spreading Sydney Town, the once-neglected sand and swamp of Surry Hills became more desirable as a residential area. The growing number of subdivisions would lead, by the 1860s, to an advancing tide of the terrace houses that would come to dominate the Surry Hills skyline. In 1849, the whole of Surry Hills and Woolloomooloo combined could boast only 800 houses, but within 10 years, the housing stock of Surry Hills alone had grown to 1,900, and by the 1890s the district had reached its zenith as a residential area. By then, the tangled network of streets was crammed with nearly 5,300 dwellings in the long rows of brick double-storey terraces that came to characterise Surry Hills in its prime. Indeed, the 40 years between the gold rushes of the early 1850s and the depression of the early 1890s saw the making of Surry Hills as a residential district, with the surges in house-building activity coinciding with periods of economic boom. Four short decades transformed Surry Hills from a scattered collection of villages, interspersed by scrubby paddocks and the occasional mansion, linked by unformed streets that were not much more than glorified sand tracks, into one of the city's most populous districts. In 1891, Cook Ward, which covered Surry Hills and Moore Park, accounted for nearly 28 per cent of the population of the Sydney municipal area. But as population increased and houses became more closely packed, there was a corresponding deterioration in the level of amenity and quality of life for the suburb's residents. With inadequate powers granted to it by the colonial legislature, the Sydney Municipal Council was unable to force landlords and speculative builders to connect even new houses to the water supplies, and the provision of formed roads through the area, and of sewerage and drainage, was exasperatingly slow, largely because of the shortage of funds. Even the completion of the Crown Street Reservoir in 1859, while it brought some relief, could not stop the apparent 'decline' of the suburb, so that by the turn of the century it had blossomed into the archetypal slum of Edwardian Sydney. This situation was exacerbated by the 1890s depression, which badly affected the local economy, ensuring that pawnshops had a growing business. In the 1850s the social mix of the district was still fairly evenly spread, but the 1860s and 1870s saw subtle changes, as a growing number of mechanics, skilled artisans and shopkeepers came to dominate local life, displacing the declining gentry. At the counters of the corner shops, in the offices of the small factories and workshops, from the front pews of the Sunday morning congregations, and especially on their weekly rounds as rent-collecting landlords, their positions in the social and economic hierarchy of the close-knit community were confirmed. In 1871, 46 per cent of all Surry Hills landlords also lived within the suburb. Despite the rapidity of development over these decades, parts of Surry Hills still retained their village atmosphere, and the local economy was quite varied. There was, of course, a strong building trade, using locally produced materials to build the suburb's housing; market gardening remained scattered throughout the area; there were coach-building works employing blacksmiths, bodymakers, coach painters and upholsterers, as well as saddlers and harness makers. Tanning and currying were also prominent in the area, with many firms appearing after legislation evicted them from the city proper. Their foul odour and noxious effluent flowed through the area for decades. The clothing or rag trade was also prominent in Surry Hills, usually through outwork or piecework systems, and in the houses off the narrow lanes of Surry Hills women ran up slop garments for Dawson's of Brickfield Hill or Cohen Brothers of Goulburn Street, in an effort to supplement often inadequate family incomes.[Dictionary of Sydney]  
    
28 Merriman St, Millers Point
28 Merriman St, Millers Point
Photograph - Google StreetView
Percival Street, Stanmore
Percival Street, Stanmore
Photograph - Google StreetView
107-111 Pyrmont Street, Pyrmont
107-111 Pyrmont Street, Pyrmont
Photograph - City of Sydney
  Stanmore is a suburb in the inner-west of Sydney, 6 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district. Stanmore was named by a prosperous saddler, John Jones, who purchased land in 1835 where Newington College now stands and called it the Stanmore Estate. Jones named it after his birthplace of Stanmore, a north London suburb. Land in the present Stanmore area was first allocated to colonial officers by Governor Phillip between 1793 and 1810. Thomas Rowley owned Kingston Farm which occupied the eastern half of Stanmore and much of Newtown, and a portion of George Johnston's Annandale estate covered the area south of Parramatta Road containing Annandale House built in 1799 on the hill between Macaulay and Albany Roads. The first Norfolk pines on the Australian mainland were planted along the line of Percival Road, leading to Parramatta Road by Lt Colonel George Johnston. In 1855, the railway divided Stanmore in to areas known as North and West Kingston north of the railway, and South Kingston south of the railway. The Kingston Farm had been sold to James Holt in 1835, and North Kingston was subdivided in 1854. South Kingston was slowly subdivided from 1857 with isolated large houses built between 1860 and 1870. It was not until the late 19th century that the name Stanmore came into more regular use, replacing Kingston. In 1878, Stanmore railway station was established and the streets west of Percival Road were laid out.[Wikipedia]  
   
Howard Smith Co Advertisment
Howard Smith Co Advertisment
Origin unknown
Howard Smith Co. Ltd, Day St, Darling Harbour, 1907
Howard Smith Co. Ltd, Darling Harbour
Photographer unknown, 1907
Sydney Hospital, c.1910
Sydney Hospital, c.1910
Photograph - Star Photo Co.
  Howard Smith Co. Captain William Howard Smith arrived in Melbourne in 1854 aboard the steamer 'Express' as Captain and part owner with engineer S B Skinner. The Express worked the Melbourne - Geelong Port Phillip bay trade, considered as the first regular passenger service on the Australian coast. In 1862 Howard sold his half share and returned to to England. He returned to Launceston in 1864 with his family and then operated a regular inter colonial passenger and cargo service between Melbourne, Sydney and Newcastle on the 'Kieff', which was renamed 'You Yangs'. A second vessel was purchased in 1867, the 'Dandenong'. Smith & his partners formed the Melbourne Steamship Company in 1869, acquiring several vessels until 1883 when the company was dissolved, by which time there were regular services to Sydney, Newcastle, Maryborough, Adelaide, Brisbane and Rockhampton. Smith took with him at least two steamers, the Edina and the Rodondo, and in October 1883 "W Howard Smith & Sons Ltd.", was formed. In 1901 "Howard Smith Limited" came into being and in 1913 the company was renamed Australian Steamships Limited. Coastal routes rapidly expanded until 1947 when the company's involvement in the inter colonial passenger trade ceased. After which the company was involved in the towage, salvage and stevedoring industries. In 1961 the Melbourne Steamship Co. was taken over by Howard Smith. Howard Smith Co withdrew from the traditonal shipping business in 1996 and from the towage industry in 2001 and the company was taken over by Wesfarmers.[The Ships List, Flotilla Australia]  
     
St David Church Hall, Surry Hills
St David Church Hall, Surry Hills
Photograph - Google StreetView
Pangee Street, Nyngan, c.1917
Pangee Street, Nyngan, c.1917
Photographer unknown
Cootamundra, c.1890
Cootamundra, c.1890
Photographer unknown
  St David's, Surry Hills, was located at 17 Arthur Street. The church has been deconsecrated and was converted into an office building. On 16th September 1956 TCN Channel 9 commenced broadcasting black & white television from St David's Anglican Church Hall. St David's church organ was installed in 1880 and in 1972 was restored and relocated to St Mark's, Wollongong.[Rootsweb, Organ Historical Trust] Nyngan is a town in the central west of New South Wales, Australia. At the 2006 census, Nyngan had a population of 1,975. Nyngan is situated on the Bogan River between Narromine and Bourke, on the junction of the Mitchell Highway and Barrier Highway, 583 km north-west of Sydney. The Barrier Highway starts at Nyngan, and runs west to Cobar and on through Wilcannia and Broken Hill into South Australia. It is on the Main Western railway line of New South Wales but is no longer served by passenger trains. The line remains open to freight traffic. Thomas Mitchell explored the Bogan River in 1835, camping on the future townsite. He recorded the local Aboriginal word nyingan, said to mean 'long pond of water'. Squatters had settled in Mitchell's wake before he had begun his return journey.[Wikipedia] Rockdale is a suburb in southern Sydney, 13 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the St George area. Rockdale was known by Europeans as Frog Hollow, then White Gum Flat and later West Botany. West Botany Municipality was declared 13 January 1871 and had two wards, West Botany and Arncliffe. A council chambers was built in 1872 on Rocky Point Road, Arncliffe and was used until 1888 when a new building was erected on the site of the present Rockdale Town Hall. There was a suggestion that the area become the Municipality of Scarborough but the name Rockdale was suggested by pioneer Mary Ann Geeves, postmistress and tollgate keeper and was officially adopted in 1887. Residential development began with the opening of the railway in 1884.[Wikipedia] Cootamundra is a town in the South West Slopes region of New South Wales, within the Riverina. It is located on the Olympic Highway at the point where it crosses the Muttama Creek, between Junee and Cowra. The land where Cootamundra now stands is a part of the Wiradjuri tribal lands, and the name Cootamundra is probably derived from the Wiradjuri word guudhamang, meaning "turtle". Cootamundra was first settled in the 1830's. The town was built on what was originally a stock station called "Cootamondra" owned by pioneer, John Hurley. By the 1860's settlement about the station had increased to such an extent that a certain amount of town planning was necessary. The town was surveyed as the "village of Cootamundry" and the plan was approved in 1861, the first lots being sold in early 1862. Like many other towns in the Riverina, it was originally populated by those attracted by the gold rush of the 1860s, but became a quiet yet prosperous agricultural community after the local deposits were exhausted. Cootamundra and district have always produced good beef, lamb, wool and rich crops of grain. The railway came through in 1877 encouraging the further growth of pastoral and related industries.[Wikipedia, Cootamundra]  
     
     

1.1.2. Alexander Howell (s/o Henry, s/o Samuel), baptised 1830, St James, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 31/1/1864, Bathurst Street West, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4,457]
  "Howell - On the 31st ultimo, at his late residence, Bathurst-street West, Mr Alexander Howell, youngest son of the late Mary Howell of Kent-street, and brother of Mr George and Mr David Howell, leaving a wife and three children to mourn their loss. Aged 34 years.(Empire 2/2/1864)"[457]  
In 1852 was a gold miner at Araluen, listed as a consignee of 15 oz & 5dwts to the Treasury, as delivered by the Southern Escort on 10/2/1852.(SMH 12/2/1852).[498] On 29/11/1858 Alexander Howell of Kent Street, was one of the nominators of William Tunks, a candidate in the election of an alderman for the Brisbane Ward.(SMH 1/12/1858).[496] On 30/9/1859 was a signatory to a letter testifying to the character of Thomas Francis Quirk, Inspector in Charge of the District police, attesting that there is no real or just cause for a complaint against him.(Empire 24/10/1859).[497] Between 1851-1858 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1851 & 1852 Alexander tennanted a house on Kent Street, Sydney, owned by his mother, Mary Howell, built of wood with a shingled roof, no assessment value listed.[571]
In 1858 Alexander tennanted a house at No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, owned by his brother, George Howell, having 1 floor, 4 rooms, built of wood with a shingle roof and an assessed annual value of £52.[571]
 
Married Mary Ann Smith, 1857, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Mary married 2nd Thomas O'Hear, 1867, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Mary died 1883, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Resided 1858, No.309 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[496,571] Resided 1864, Bathurst Street West, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[457]

Children of Alexander Howell & Mary Ann Smith:
i.
 
Hannah S. Howell, born 1858, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Gideon Edwin Harris, 1878, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Gideon, s/o Henry & Mary, died 1905, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
  "By Order of the Administrator of the Estate Late Gideon Edwin Harris. Paddington And Little Coogee Freeholds.
Lot 1. Paddington near Darlinghurst. Brick-built house, No. 17 Albion Street, a few yards east of Dowling-street, and handy to 1d tram section at Oxford-street, Darlinghurst. The land has 13ft frontage by a depth of 57ft 2in.
Lot 2. Little Coogee (now Clovelley). Weatherboard cottage, erected on allotment No. 19 of Sec. 7, Cliffbrook Estate, having 40ft frontage to east side of Lowe street (formerly High-street), with a depth of 129ft.
Lot 3. Little Coogee. Vacant allotment, No. 8, Sec. 6, Cliffbrook Estate, 40ft frontage to west side of Lowe-street (formerly High street), depth 129ft.
Richardson and Wrench Ltd., will sell by auction, at the Rooms, on Friday, 27th August, at 11.30am. The above, full particulars of which will appear in future advertisement. Thomas Rose, Esq., is solicitor of the Estate.(SMH 18/8/1909
)"[495]
 
Married 2nd George K. Brear, 1919, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
Children: (a)
 
Edwin Alexander Harris, born 1879, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1936, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Married Jean Slight, 1921, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(b)
Eleanor/Helena A. Harris, born 1881, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1884, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(c) William H. Harris, born 1884, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1933, Granville, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(d) Henry Harris, born 1886, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(e) Charles G. Harris, born 1888, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
(f) Herbert W. Harris, born 1898, Paddington, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4]
ii.

Alexander Howell, born 1860, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1943, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] No evidence of issue or marriage.[4]
  "On 12/3/1872 in the Central Police Court Alexander Hewell, 12, was charged by William Merryweather, of Kent-street, greengrocer, with having stolen 2s. 9½d. in copper money from his till, and, pleading guilty, was sentenced to pay a penalty of 20s., or to be imprisoned seven days.(SMH 13/3/1872)"[492]  
In 1911 was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Books:
  In 1911 Alexander tennanted a house at No.7 Little Norton Street West Side, Sydney, owned by the estate of Thomas McCook, having 2 floors, 3 rooms, built of brick with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £26.[571]  
Resided 1911, No.7 Little Norton Street West Side, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[571]
iii.

William Henry Howell, born 1862, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1944, Windsor, NSW, Australia.[4] Was listed in the Sydney Rate Assessment Book for 1891:
  In 1891 William tennanted a workshop off Pyrmont Street, Sydney, owned by I. Morrison, having 2 floors, 2 rooms, built of wood & iron with an iron roof and an assessed annual value of £100.[571]  

     
Araluen Valley, 1866
Araluen Valley, 1866
Engraving - J. R. Roberts
Ball, Araluen, 1867
Ball, Araluen, 1867
Photograph - Sydney Illustrated News
Wooden Cottages, Kent Street, 1875
Wooden Cottages, Kent Street, 1875
Photographer unknown
  Araluen is a small town near Braidwood in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales. It lies in the valley of Araluen creek, that joins the Deua River at roughly the mid point in its course. The name 'Araluen' meant 'water lily' or 'place of the water lilies' in the local aboriginal dialect. At the time of European settlement Araluen was described as a broad alluvial valley with many natural billabongs covered with water lilies. The natural landscape of Araluen Creek and its valley was completely destroyed by gold mining during the 'gold rush' in the latter half of the 19th century. The town experienced a decline after a flash flood in 1860 virtually destroyed the town, killing 24 people. The first European settler, Henry Burnell, arrived in 1835 and soon purchased over 1000 acres from the government. On this land he ran sheep and cattle assisted by a grant of assigned convicts. The discovery of gold in September 1851 by Alexander Waddell saw the population boom. Within months of the discovery hundreds of miners had descended on the valley and a number of tent cities had sprung up. The only access to the valley at the time was by way of a track so steep that goods traversed it by being dragged up and down on sleds. Later a road was cut up to Majors Creek which, because it was the route gold shipments took, soon became infested with bushrangers. Early miners panned for gold in the river and creeks, and when this ran out a water race was built in 1855 by ex-Californian miners to wash away the overburden along the creeks and reach the gold, sometimes to a depth of over 12 metres. In the 1860s and 70s Araluen was booming with over 4000 people in the valley, and a reputation of being one of the richest goldfields in Australia. Gold worth almost $1 million per month in today's values was being taken from the mines. In the 1860s there were as many as 20 pubs on the fields, which contributed to the disordliness of those wild and reckless days. By the 70s some 20 butcher shops, plus general stores, bakers, shoemakers, blacksmiths, other merchants and a small number of churches served the needs of the population. The notorious Ben Hall and his gang unsuccessfully tried to hold up the gold coach at Majors Creek Mountain in 1862. (Most gold was taken out by coach or dray to Braidwood then on to Goulburn, with a police escort to protect the gold which had by this time usually been bought by Government asseyors). As time went by the gold at Araluen became more difficult to win, as it had no reef mines, but the fields remained productive up to the 1920s. Since then the miners have left and the valley has reverted to its pastoral origins, increased by the families and descendants of former miners who have taken up smaller farms there.[Wikipedia, Argyle Country]  
     
Bathurst Street at George Sreet, Sydney 1870
Bathurst Street at George Sreet, Sydney
Photographer unknown, c.1870
17 Albion Ave, Paddington
17 Albion Ave, Paddington
Photograph - Google StreetView
View from Lowe St, Clovelley
View from Lowe St, Clovelley
Photograph - Google StreetView
  Bathurst Street is a cross street in the Central Business District of Sydney. It is situated in the southern portion of the Sydney central business district and runs from Darling Harbour in the west, across the ridge where it crosses George Street, and then on to Elizabeth Street in the east at Hyde Park. It is 650 metres long. At the eastern end of Bathurst Street is an obelisk which was erected in 1857 and unveiled by the Mayor, George Thornton. The monument is actually a sewer vent, and soon the joke around town was to call it 'Thornton’s Scent Bottle'. The obelisk is an example of the Victorian Egyptian style and was based on Cleopatra's Needle in London.[Wikipedia] Little Coogee. Clovelly is a beachside suburb in south-eastern Sydney, 8 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district. Clovelly is a mainly residential suburb on Clovelly Bay. Clovelly Beach is a small beach that sits on the end of the narrow bay. The bay is home to one of the first surf lifesaving clubs in the world, Clovelly Surf Life Saving Club, which was founded in 1906. Originally known as Little Coogee, the name was changed to Clovelly in 1913. When the search for a new name began, Eastbourne, an English seaside town was suggested. The president of the local progress association suggested Clovelly, the name of a local estate owned by Sir John Robertson, which was named for the village of Clovelly on the north Devon coast, England. William Greville bought 20 acres, which included the whole bay frontage, for 40 pounds in 1834. Early Clovelly houses were modest and built in a simple style. Some survived around Northumberland, Campbell and Boundary Streets near Waverley Cemetery and also further west. Massive subdivision began in 1909 into residential blocks, forming the basis of today's suburb.[Wikipedia]
 
     
     

William Kippax
William Kippax (1877)
Sydney Council Archives

1.3.1. William Henry (Howell) Kippax (s/o Hannah, d/o Samuel),[4,234,235,236,237,242] born 29/3/1827, Windsor, NSW,[246,310] baptised 3/6/1827, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[246] Died 30/4/1910 (83yo), "Leystone", Dural Road, Hornsby, Sydney, NSW (s/o Richard & Hannah).[4,242,310,1] Buried 2/5/1910, Methodist Section, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW.[319]
"The Friends of Edwin Kippax are informed that the Funeral of his late father, William Kippax, will leave his late residence Leystone, Dural road, Hornsby this afternoon, at 1:30, for Methodist Cemetery, Rookwood, via Hornsby and Strathfield stations. By request no flowers. The Friends of Mr W. Robson, M.L.C., are informed that the Funeral of his late father-in-law, William Kippax, will move from Leystone, Dural road, Hornsby, this afternoon at 1:30, for Methodist Cemetery, Rookwood via Hornsby and Strathfield stations. By request, no flowers."[319]
Poulterer, 1849-1876.[299,314] City of Sydney Council Alderman for Cook Ward, 1/12/1863-30/11/1898.[236,329] Kippax Street, Surrey Hills, Sydney, was named after Alderman William Kippax.[236] In 1849 William became a partner in a poultry business, previously owned by James Harrison.[314]
"James Harrison begs to return his sincere thanks for the very liberal patronage he has received from his numerous patrons, and to inform them that be has disposed of his Poultry Business to John Vickery (late foreman to Mr Wilson) and William Kippax, to whom he wishes to recommend them. (signed) J. Harrison. John Vickery (late foreman to Mr Wilson) and William Kippax beg to apprise that numerous friends and the public in general that having purchased the Poultry Business from Mr J. Harrison, No.14, George-street Market, they will Supply them with poultry of the best quality, and at prices that will defy competition; and therefore confidently solicit a continuance of the patronage so liberally enjoyed by their predecessor. (signed) John Vickery, William Kippax. N.B.-Shipping supplied with all kinds of live stock, on the shortest notice."[314]
In 1854 was one of the signatories of a letter published in the Sydney Morning Herald in defense of the Sydney Gas Company:
"To the Editor of the Sydney Morning Herald.
SIR, I, being the person charged by the Gas Company with the special surveillance of the lights in the Market, deem it incumbent upon me to refute, by the accompanying document, the malicious charge against the Gas Company contained in your publication of the 26th instant, headed "Sydney Markets and the Sydney Gas Company." I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, James Turner. Gas Works, Sydney, September 27, 1854.
We, the undersigned, stall-holders in the Markets, having seen the article in the Sydney Morning Herald of the 26th instant headed " Sydney Markets and the Sydney Gas Company," declare that for the past six months we have had no cause to complain of the lighting; and it was only through an accident, which could not be rectified at once, that a small number of us were short of light on Saturday, the 23rd instant. (Signed) H. Maxwell, butcher; Thomas Briggs, butcher; R. W. Hills, butcher; R. Palmer, butter merchant; J. Hills, butcher; J. E. Etherington, butcher; H. Laws, butcher; Samuel Kippax, poulterer; William Kippax, poulterer; W. Jenkins, butcher; John Vickery, poulterer; John Linsley, cheese-monger; William Carell, butcher; Sarah Wakely, tripe shop; W. H. Ireland, poulterer; J. Bradbury, cheesemonger; Henry Denton, cheese-monger; James Walker, cheesemonger; Henry Ward, pastrycook; Thomas Wilson, fishmonger."[316]

In 1870 was on the state Supreme Court Jury.[304] In 1876 Samuel & William Kippax dissolved their business partnership (Sydney Morning Herald 1/11/1876): "Dissolution of Partnership. The Partnership hitherto subsisting between us has been this day Dissolved by mutual consent. The business will be continued by Mr S. Kippax, under the style of Kippax Brothers, who will receive all debts and pay all liabilities of the late firm. William Kippax, Samuel Kippax. Witness-William Hezlet, J.P. October 31,1876."[299] In 1879 was a co-administrator of the estate of Reuben Dalton Hudson of 76 Goulburn Street, Sydney,[315] In 1893 was returning officer for the electoral district of South Sydney & a Justice of the Peace.[309] Married Elizabeth Robertson, 26/3/1848, St Andrew's Scots Church, Sydney, NSW,[4,283] by Rev. Dr. McGarvie.[283] Elizabeth, d/o Robert & Jane, born 1833 & died 15/4/1910, "Leystone", Dural Road, Hornsby, Sydney, NSW.[4,310] Resided 1862,1867, No.349, Bourke Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[303,313] Resided 1870, No.380 Bourke St, Sydney, NSW.[304] Resided 1888,1892, No.387, Cnr Bourke & Campbell Streets, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[300,308] Resided 1904, Springwood, NSW.[311] Resided 1908,1910, "Leystone", Dural Road, Hornsby, Sydney, NSW.[307,310]

Children of William Henry Kippax & Elizabeth Robertson:
i.
 
William Robson
William Robson
Photo - NSW Parliament

Anne Robertson Kippax, born 1850, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 3/1920, Wollongong, NSW.[306] Married William Robson,[322] 1868, Sydney, NSW.[4] William died 25/10/1920, Wollongong, NSW.[306] "Mr William Robson, M.L.C. a well-known public accountant and a leading layman of the Methodist Church, died at Wollongong yesterday. Ho was 76 years of age, and was in his usual health, practising his profession, a little over a fortnight ago. While spending a week-end at the country home of his son, Mr. W. E. V. Robson, at Wollongong, he became ill, and had to bo removed to a private hospital, where he was operated upon for appendicitis. It was thought that he was progressing satisfactorily, but a relapse occurred and resulted in his death. His father having come to New South Wales in connection with the founding of the coal industry, Mr. Robson was born at Newcastle, but most of his youth was spent in the Illawarra district, where his father was for some years owner of the Mount Keira mine. As a young man he entered the ministry of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, In which
William Elliott Veitch Robson
William Elliott Robson
NSW Parliament
he remained for about 12 years, being stationed at Young, Braidwood, Waratah, and Morpeth. Although he resigned from the ministry, he continued to act as a local preacher up to the present time. Having first entered the pulpit at the age of 15 years, he had preached regularly for 60 years, and even during recent years he frequently officiated at services twice on a Sunday. For some years after leaving the ministry Mr. Robson was on the staff of the Colonial Architect's office, after which he became secretary of the Town and Country Building Society, with which the late Mr. Samuel Lees was associated. About 25 years ago he established the practice as a public accountant, in which he continued to be engaged up to the time of his death. In June, 1 1900, he was nominated to the Legislative Council by the Ministry led by Sir William Lyne, and until the last year or two he was a regular attendant of the Upper House, where he made many valuable contributions to debates. For many years Mr. Robson was regularly elected a delegate to the State and Federal conferences of the Methodist Churches, and had held many important positions, Including that of honorary treasurer of the Foreign, Mission Society of the Church, and treasurer of the New South Wales Supernumerary Fund. He was a strong advocate of the union of the Methodist Churches In Australia, and introduced the bill into the Legislative Council dealing with it when it was finally agreed upon. For about a quarter of a century Mr. Robson worked towards the establishment of Wesley College, and was largely instrumental in securing the legislation for the application of an old grant to that purpose. He was a member of the council of the college, and gave £1000 for the establishment of a Scholarship in memory of his son, the Rev. Reginald Robson. Some years ago Mr. Robson visited Fiji as a member of a committee appointed by the Methodist Church to Inspect the missions of that denomination there. Mr. Robson was married to a daughter of the late Mr. William Kippax, an alderman of the city for 32 years, and she died last March. He is survived by one son, Mr. W. E. V. Robson, M.L.C.; and one daughter, Mrs. W. B. Larke, of Lindfield. A short service will be conducted at the Bourke-street Methodist Church, commencing at 1 p.m.. to-day, and the funeral will take place at Rookwood Cemetery (Sydney Morning Herald, 26/10/1920)."[306]
"Robson, William (1843-1920), Methodist minister, accountant and politician. William was born on 21 December 1843 at Newcastle, New South Wales, son of William Robson, English-born miner, and his wife Ann, née Veitch. After attending T. W. Robinson's East Maitland Academy and Wollongong National School, he worked in the office of his father's Mount Keira coal-mine. At 15 he became a lay preacher in the Wesleyan Methodist Church and in 1864 entered the ministry. After his marriage to Annie Robertson Kippax (d.1920) in Sydney on 17 March 1868, he served in country circuits in the southern and Newcastle areas until 1879, when he resigned because of throat trouble. He remained a local preacher. On 12 September Robson joined the colonial architect's office as a clerk, but left in 1885 to become secretary, manager, then liquidator for twenty years of the Town & Country Land, Building & Investment Co. Ltd. From about 1895 he practised as a public accountant and was also an estate agent (1902-08). A Protectionist, he was defeated for Petersham in 1894, but was active in (Sir) Edmund Barton's Federation campaign. In 1900 he was nominated to the Legislative Council. He supported women's franchise and industrial arbitration, in 1902 carried the Methodist Union Act, unamended, and opposed state aid for denominational children's charities, fearing sectarian bitterness. He served on the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works (1905-07 and 1911-14). As vice-president of the New South Wales Alliance for the Suppression of Intemperance (1903-12) and president of the Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society (1912-16), he fought for reform of liquor and gambling laws. A member of the State conference of the Methodist Church for many years, Robson was a delegate to every triennial Australasian general conference from 1884. He was treasurer of the Methodist Centenary Fund and the Foreign Mission Society, and administered the Supernumerary Ministers' and Ministers' Widows' and the Bright Bequest funds. In 1903 he visited Fiji to inspect the Church's missions there and wrote three perceptive articles on the colony for the Daily Telegraph. He was a member of Newington College council from 1898 and worked assiduously for the establishment of Wesley College (University of Sydney) of which he was a foundation councillor (1915) and treasurer. In 1916 he donated £1000 to establish a scholarship in memory of his son Reginald (d.1907). Remembered as a man of 'striking personality', Robson died at Wollongong, after an operation for appendicitis, on 25 October 1920 and was buried in Rookwood cemetery. His daughter and one son survived him."[324]
Children: (a)
 
William Elliott Veitch Robson, born 21/3/1869, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[4,322,323,324] Died 29/6/1951, Rose Bay, Sydney, NSW.[5,322,323,324] Estate was sworn for probate at £64,669.[324] Solicitor, parliamentarian and businessman.[322,323,324] Attended Newington College (1882-1886) and then the University of Sydney from where he graduated with a BA in 1889.[322,323,324] Articled to G.Wallace in 1889, admitted as a solicitor 1892; became a senior partner in Robson and Cowlishaw; chairman of directors of R.H Gordon and Company Limited; director of Commercial Union Assurance Company Limited; Larke, Hoskins and Company Limited; Larke, Neave and Carter Pty Limited and Grenville Motors Pty Limited; director of Benevolent Society of New South Wales 1924 - 1927; councillor of Newington College; member of Australian Protestant Defence Association; Australia Club.[323,324] Chairman Commercial Union Assurance Co. Ltd & R. H. Gordon & Co. Ltd.[322] Director Larke, Hoskins, & Co. Ltd, Larke, Neave and Carter Pty Ltd & Grenville Motors Pty Ltd.[322] Alderman, Ashfield Council, 1898-1908.[322,323] Mayor, Ashfield Council, 1899.[322,323] Member of NSW Legislative Assembly, Liberal Party, 16/8/1905-3/2/1920.[322,323] Life Member of NSW Legislative Council, 27/4/1920-29/6/1951.[322,323] Member for Ashfield, 16/8/1905-3/2/1920.[323] Commissioned as a Justice of the Peace in 1892.[323] Was active in the Methodist Church and attended numerous State annual conferences, was a council-member of Wesley College, University of Sydney and Newington College and a committee-member of the Sydney Central Methodist Mission.[322] From 1924 until 1927 was a director of the Benevolent Society of New South Wales.[322] William enjoyed cricket, tennis, shooting and bowls and was a member of the Australian, University and School clubs.[324] Married Ettie Gorma Cusack Whyte, 17/10/1894, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[4,322,324] Ettie, d/o John St L. & Sarah, died 1899, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[4,322] Married Mabel Jackson Wise, 21/12/1901, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[4,322,323,324] Mabel, d/o William & Janet, born 1944, Waverley, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (1)
 
William A. V. Robson, born 1903, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1919, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(2)
Ewan Murray Robson, born 7/3/1906, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[4,328] Died 26/8/1974, Rose Bay, Sydney, NSW.[4,328] Member of NSW Legislative Assembly, 29/8/1936-26/7/1957, Member for Vaucluse.[328] Member of the United Australia Party & then the Liberal Party (state leader, 1954-1955).[328] Solicitor.[328] Educated at Newington College, St Paul's College, University of Sydney., BA 1927, LLB 1930; admitted as a solicitor 1930; joined family firm of Robson and Cowlishaw 1931 - 1954, Robson, Cowlishaw and Macready from 1955.[328] Served 2nd Australian Imperial Forces 1939-1945, 2/31st Australian Infantry Battalion, New Guinea and Borneo, Lieutenant-Colonel, Distinguished Service Order.[328] Commander of the British Empire (CBE), 1966.[328] Married Lesley A. Martin, 31/3/1931, Sydney, NSW.[4,328] Married 2nd Laomi Priscilla Gee, 9/12/1950, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4,328]
(3) Kathleen M. Robson, born 1908, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married John W. H. Drury, 1934, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(4) Reginald George Robson, born 1915, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Lavinia Fuller, 1946, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Ethel Kippax Robson, born 1872, Braidwood, NSW.[4] Died 1961, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Charles W. B. Larke, 1904, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Marjorie Robson Larke, born 1905, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Walter R. Locke, 1926, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(2)
Elizabeth Robson Larke, born 1909, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Joseph Calvert, 12953, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3) Reginald J. Larke, born 1911, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(c) Reginald Norman Robson, born 1878, Morpeth, NSW.[4] Died 1907, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Unmarried.[4]
(d) Mary Ellen Robson, born 1880, Newcastle, NSW.[4] Died infancy.
(e) Mary Ellen Robson, born 1882, Lambton, NSW.[4] Died before 1920.[306]
ii.

Eliza Kippax, born 1852, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 20/3/1908, "Leystone", Dural Road, (Northwood) Hornsby, Sydney, NSW.[4,307] Did not marry.[4]
iii.

William Henry Kippax, born 1854, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1901, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Elizabeth Rayner, 1885, Sydney, NSW.[4] No issue.
iv.

Elizabeth Kippax, born 1857, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 22/9/1862, No.349 Bourke Street, Sydney, NSW (5.5yo).[4,303] "Funeral.-The Friends of Mr William Kippax are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his deceased daughter Elizabeth, this (Tuesday) Morning; the procession to move from his residence, Bourke and Campbell streets, at 9 o'clock, Thomas Dixon, undertaker, South Head Road (Sydney Morning Herald 23/9/1862).[303]
v.

Edwin Kippax, born 1859, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1916, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[4] In 1879 was appointed as a clerk in the Conditional Sales Branch of the Department of Lands.[301]
  "Promotion: Yesterday, at noon, Mr. Edwin Kippax, who has been connected with the Lands Office at Maitland, for some years, in the capacity of clerk, and has received preferment to the Head Office in Sydney, was presented by Mr. James Vernon, Chairman of the Board, on behalf of a number of subscribers-those who had been intimately connected with him-with a gold medal. On the medal a suitable inscription was engraven (Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser, 8/10/1892).[302]  
 Married Agnes Deaker, 1885, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[4] No issue.[4]
vi.
Frank Kippax, born 1862, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 16/11/1863, 349 Bourke Street, Sydney, NSW (10mo).[4,313]

vii.
Walter Kippax, born 1864, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 3/1888, Sydney, NSW.[4,300] Buried 29/3/1888, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW.[300]
  "The friends of Alderman William Kippax, Esq., are respectfully informed that the Funeral of his late son, Walter, will move from his residence, No. 387, Bourke and Campbell streets, Surry Hills, This (Thursday) afternoon, at quarter to 2 o'clock, for the Necropolis. J. and G. Shying & Co, Undertakers, No. 8, George-street West (only)." & "The Friends of Mr Robson are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved brother in-law, Walter Kippax; to move from his parents residence, 387 Bourke-Street, to-day, at 2 o'olock, for Rookwood."[300]  
 Walter, 22yo, was an articled clerk in tho office of Mr Merriman, city solicitor.[300]

viii.
Lizzie Kippax, born 1867, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 5/1934, Windsor, NSW.[4,312] Buried 24/4/1934, St Matthew's, Windsor, NSW.[312] Did not marry.[4]
ix. Kate Kippax, born 1869, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 7/1892, No.387 Bourke Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[4,308]
x. Norman S. Kippax, born 1871, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1921, Hunters Hill, Sydney, NSW.[4] Did not marry.[4]
xi. Elsie May Kippax, born 28/6/1874, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[4,325] Died at home, 8/3/1946, 24 Bushlands Avenue, Gordon, Sydney, NSW (69yo).[5,325,326] Privately cremated 9/3/1946, Northern Suburbs.[326] Married Norton Joseph Neave, 14/5/1904, Christchurch Church of England, Springwood, NSW,[4,311,325]  by Rev. F. Claydon.[311] Norton was of Longueville at the time of the marriage & Elsie was of Springwood.[311] Norton, s/o Joseph James & Helen Grace, born 6/3/1879, Northwood, Sydney, NSW,[325] & died 6/1/1937, Cattai, near Windsor, NSW.[4,305]
  "Mr. Norton Joseph Neave, who died at Cattai, early yesterday morning, was educated at the Friends' School, Hobart. In early life he acquired a practical knowledge of the building trade and at a later date he was engaged In fruitgrowing and preserving at Adelaide and at Springwood, New South Wales. In 1903 he joined Mr W B Larke in the business then conducted undee the name of W and F Larke and until the time of his death wis actively associated with various interests arising out of the original undertaking. He was for seveial years general manager of the Eclipse Printing Company managing director of Larke Hoskins and Co Ltd managing director of Larke Neave and Carter Ltd and a director of other associated companies. Mr Neave was married in 1904 to Miss Elsie Kippax daughter of the late Alderman William Kippax who with one son Mr R Claydon Neave and three daughters Mrs N G Baur of Cattai Mrs C Arndell of Fairy Hill, Casino and Miss Patricia Neave survive him. The funeral look place at the Friends Burial Ground Rookwood yesterday. Those present Included Messrs R C Neave (son) S A Neale and B W Neave (brothers), N G Baur (son in law), W B Larke, P T Larke, E R Lane, W E V Robson MLC, W R Locke (directors of Larke Neave and Cartel Ltd), H M Lines, O J Hazlett, R C Marsden, R Greenwood, H R Hill, G R Allman, C Winsor, H Carberry, W Curtis, F McCredie, S Howland (Sydney Morning Herald, 7/1/1937)."[305]  
 Resided 1907, Leystone, Northwood, Sydney, NSW.[327] Resided 1937, Cattai, near Windsor, NSW.[305]
Children: (a)
 
Alison Norton Neave, born 12/7/1905, Linfield, Sydney, NSW.[4,325] Died 12/12/1991, Sydney, NSW.[325] Married George H. Norbert Baur,[305] 10/7/1929, Hunters Hill, Sydney, NSW.[4,325] Resided 1937, Cattai, NSW.[305]
(b)
Reginald Claydon Neave,[305] born 1/11/1907, Leystone, Northwood, Sydney, NSW.[4,325,327] Died 9/4/1958, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW.[325] Married Barbara Jean Park, 1930, Presbyterian Church, Artarmon, Sydney, NSW.[4,325]
(c) Helen Norton Neave, born 30/9/1911, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4,325] Died 1994.[325] Married Reginald Clive Arundell.[305,325] Resided 1937, Fairy Hill, near Casino, NSW.[305]
(d) Patricia Mary Neave,[305] born 7/1/1919, Sydney, NSW.[325] Died 1/1962, St Ives, Sydney, NSW.[325] Unmarried as of 1937.[305] Resided 1937, Cattai, NSW.[305]

     
St Andrew's Scots Church (1848)
St Andrew's Scots Church (1848)
Engraving - Joseph Fowles (National Library)
351-345 Bourke St, Surry Hills (349 renovating)
351-345 Bourke St, Surry Hills (349 renovating)
Photograph - Google StreetView
380-386 Bourke Street, Surry Hills
380-386 Bourke Street, Surry Hills
Photograph - Realestate.com
  The original St Andrew’s Scots Church was built in 1835 and located behind the present St Andrew’s Cathedral. It was the second Scots Church in Sydney.[Sydney in the 19th Century] Surry Hills is an inner-city suburb of Sydney. It is located immediately south-east of the Sydney central business district. Surry Hills is surrounded by the suburbs of Darlinghurst to the north, Chippendale and Haymarket to the west, Moore Park and Paddington to the east and Redfern to the south. The first land grants in Surry Hills were made in the 1790s. Major Joseph Foveaux received 105 acres. His property was known as Surry Hills Farm, after the Surrey Hills in Surrey, England. Foveaux Street is named in his honour. Commissary John Palmer received 90 acres. He called the property George Farm and in 1800 Palmer also bought Foveaux's farm. In 1792, the boundaries of the Sydney Cove settlement were established between the head of Cockle Bay to the head of Woolloomooloo Bay. West of the boundary, which included present-day Surry Hills, was considered suitable for farming and was granted to military officers and free settlers. After Palmer's political failures, his reduced financial circumstances forced the first subdivision and sale of his estate in 1814. Isaac Nichols bought Allotment 20, comprising over 6 acres. Due to the hilly terrain, much of the suburb was considered remote and 'inhospitable'. In the early years of the nineteenth century the area around what is now Prince Alfred Park was undeveloped land known as the Government Paddocks or Cleveland Paddocks. A few villas were built in the suburb in the late 1820s. The suburb remained one of contrasts for much of the nineteenth century, with the homes of wealthy merchants mixed with that of the commercial and working classes. In 1820, Governor Macquarie ordered the consecration of the Devonshire Street Cemetery. A brick wall was erected before any interments took place to enclose its four acres. Within a four year period the cemetery was expanded by the addition of seven acres to its south. A road was formed along the southern boundary of the cemetery in the first half of the 1830s and was called Devonshire Street The Devonshire Street cemetery, where many of the early settlers were buried, was later moved to build the Sydney railway terminus. Central railway station was opened in 1906. The area around Cleveland and Elizabeth streets was known as Strawberry Hills. Strawberry Hills post office was located at this intersection for many years. In 1833, the Nichol's estate was subdivided and sold. One purchase was by Thomas Broughton and subsequently acquired by George Hill who constructed Durham Hall on this and adjoining lots. Terrace houses and workers' cottages were built in Surry Hills from the 1850s. Light industry became established in the area, particularly in the rag trade (clothing industry). It became a working class suburb, predominately inhabited by Irish immigrants. The suburb developed a reputation for crime and vices. Surry Hills was favoured by newly arrived families after World War II when property values were low and accommodation was inexpensive. From the 1980s, the area was gentrified, with many of the area's older houses and building restored and many new upper middle-class residents enjoying the benefits of inner-city living.[Wikipedia]  
   
Cnr Campbell & Bourke Sts, c.1910
387 Bourke Street, Surry Hills, c.1910
Photograph - Sydney City Archives
Cnr Bourke & Campbell St's, 1908
Cnr Bourke & Campbell St's, 1908
Photograph - Sydney City Archives
Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Bourke Street (1872)
Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Bourke St
Photograph - State Library NSW, 1872
  The Wesleyan Methodist Church, Bourke Street, Surry Hills was an exceptionally imposing building with a seating capacity of over 1,200. In 1950 demographic changes caused the closure of the building for services and the building lay dormant for almost 30 years. The Wesley Central Mission redeveloped the site as "Edward Eager Lodge", a hostel for homeless people,m in the late 1970s, retaining the Bourke Street Church as a heritage item.[Wesley Uniting Church]  
   
Mt Keira Mine
Mt Keira Mine, 1905
Mt Keira Mine, c.1905
Illawarra Coal
Christ Church, Springwood
Christ Church, Springwood
Photograph - Sandra Arrell [Flickr]
24 Bushlands Avenue, Gordon
24 Bushlands Avenue, Gordon
Photograph - Domain.com
  Coal was recorded at Mount Keira in 1839 by the Rev W. B. Clarke. In 1848 James Shoobert, a retired sea captain, drove a tunnel into what is now known as the No. 3 (Wongawilli) seam. He then observed an outcrop of the No. 2 (Balgownie or 4-ft) seam, in which the coal was of better quality, and drove tunnels into it in 1849 and 1850. This was known as the Albert Coal Mine and was the first in the Illawarra. Shoobert lacked the capital to develop the mine and in 1856 sold it by auction to Henry Osborne. In April 1857 a new tunnel was opened into the higher No 1 (Bulli) seam a short distance away by William Robson for Osborne and called the Osborne Wallsend Colliery. On 16 April 1857 the first 3.5 tons of coal from the new mine was delivered to the wharf at Wollongong’s Belmore Basin by bullock team for trial in the S.S. Illawarra. Keira coal gained a reputation for being superior to any other coal, and by the 1870s large shipments were being made to Sydney, India and parts of Asia. Coal was originally forked into approximately 1 ton capacity wooden skips, hauled to the surface by horse and then carted down the mountain by a track joining Mount Keira Road near Hurt Street. Later improvements include a Main and Tail Rope Haulage installation to bring coal to the surface, and a self acting skip incline (that is, empty skips hauled up to the mine by the descending loaded skips) to transport the coal to the foot of the mountain at what is now Gooyong Street, Keiraville. In May 1861 a narrow gauge tramway was constructed from the incline to Belmore Basin (Wollongong Harbour) after the Mount Keira Tramways Act was passed by parliament. In 1878 the tramroad was widened to standard gauge and horse teams used for hauling the coal were replaced by steam locomotives. These locomotives were the first locomotives to work on this coal route but steam locomotives were earlier used at Bulli Colliery from 1867 - even though the first Bulli locomotive purchased proved too heavy for the track which had previously been designed for an ingenious gravitational coal-skip incline to the jetty over four cutting and four bridges. The locomotives at Keira ceased running in 1954 when the line was closed. In 1937 Australian Iron and Steel (later a subsidiary of BHP and then BHP Billiton) acquired the colliery for its Port Kembla steelworks. Longwall mining was introduced in the 1960s. Peak production was reached in the year ending November 1979 with 770,684 tonnes. In 1982 a downturn in the steel industry resulted in 189 employees (60% of the workforce) being retrenched, resulting in a 16 day “sit-in” protest by 30, and mining finally ceased on 27 September 1991.[Wikipedia] In August 2010 No.24 Bushlands Avenue, Gordon, was placed on the market at a price of $3.6 million.[Domain]  
   
   

1.3.2. Samuel (Howell) Kippax  (s/o Hannah, d/o Samuel),[4,234,235,236] born 23/12/1829, Windsor, NSW,[246] baptised 5/6/1830, St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW.[246] Died 4/12/1885, Sydney, NSW (s/o Richard & Ann, 56yo).[4,246,295] Cause of death was a paralytic stroke.[295] Buried 6/12/1885, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW.[295]
  "The friends of the late Mr. Samuel Kippax are respectfully invited to attend his funeral; to move from his late residence, No.11. Hill-street, Surry Hills on Sunday afternoon, at half-past 1 o'clock, for Rookwood Cemetery. J. and G. Shying and Co, Undertakers, 140, Liverpool-street. No 18, George-street West." & "Old Protestant Alliance Friendly Society, No. 1. The Officers and Members of the above and kindred Societies are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of our late departed Brother,  Samuel Kippax. The funeral will leave his late residence No. 11. Hill-street, off Bourke-street. Surry- Hills. Tomorrow Sunday, at half-past 1 o'clock sharp, for the Necropolis. By order. H. E. Lees, President, R. G. Kenway, Vice-President, Ed. Stredman & R. Tulls, Secretaries." & "The Friends of the late Mr Samuel Kippax are invited to follow his remains to the Necropolis. Rookwood, on Sunday afternoon, at quarter to 2 o'clock, from his late residence, Hill-street, near Oxford-street."[295]  
Samuel's will was probated 11/3/1886, estate valued at £2113.[297] Poulterer, 1854,1876.[299,316] In 1854 was one of the signatories of a letter published in the Sydney Morning Herald in defense of the Sydney Gas Company:
  "To the Editor of the Sydney Morning Herald. SIR, I, being the person charged by the Gas Company with the special surveillance of the lights in the Market, deem it incumbent upon me to refute, by the accompanying document, the malicious charge against the Gas Company contained in your publication of the 26th instant, headed "Sydney Markets and the Sydney Gas Company." I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, James Turner. Gas Works, Sydney, September 27, 1854.
We, the undersigned, stall-holders in the Markets, having seen the article in the Sydney Morning Herald of the 26th instant headed " Sydney Markets and the Sydney Gas Company," declare that for the past six months we have had no cause to complain of the lighting; and it was only through an accident, which could not be rectified at once, that a small number of us were short of light on Saturday, the 23rd instant. (Signed) H. Maxwell, butcher; Thomas Briggs, butcher; R. W. Hills, butcher; R. Palmer, butter merchant; J. Hills, butcher; J. E. Etherington, butcher; H. Laws, butcher; Samuel Kippax, poulterer; William Kippax, poulterer; W. Jenkins, butcher; John Vickery, poulterer; John Linsley, cheese-monger; William Carell, butcher; Sarah Wakely, tripe shop; W. H. Ireland, poulterer; J. Bradbury, cheesemonger; Henry Denton, cheese-monger; James Walker, cheesemonger; Henry Ward, pastrycook; Thomas Wilson, fishmonger."[316]
 
Was a jury member in the Banco Court, 1868, 1872.[294] Was vice president of the NSW Protestant Political Association, 1871.[298] In 1876 Samuel & William Kippax dissolved their business partnership (Sydney Morning Herald 1/11/1876): "Dissolution of Partnership. The Partnership hitherto subsisting between us has been this day Dissolved by mutual consent. The business will be continued by Mr S. Kippax, under the style of Kippax Brothers, who will receive all debts and pay all liabilities of the late firm. William Kippax, Samuel Kippax. Witness-William Hezlet, J.P. October 31,1876."[299] Married Eliza Waugh.[4] {No record of marriage in NSW. Was it interstate or defacto?} Eliza born 1837, died 15/7/1935, Point Clare, Sydney, NSW & buried 18/7/1935 (98yo).[291] Resided 1865-1872, Hill Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[294,296] Resided 1885, No.11, Hill Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[295]

Children of Samuel Kippax & Eliza Waugh:
i.
 
Louisa Kippax, born 1857, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1919, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Jeremiah Roberts, 1879, Sydney, NSW.[4] Jeremiah, s/o James & Jane, died 1934, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (a)
 
D'arcy Falconer Roberts, born 1881, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1961, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Joan Margaret Yeomans Fitzhardinge, 1908, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Charles D'arcy Roberts, born 1909, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Agnes Stanley, 1929, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(2)
Granley D'arcy Roberts, born 1910, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1979, NSW.[5] Married Mary Margaret Abbott, 1948, Manly, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3) Patience D'arcy Roberts, born 1912, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(4) Andrew D'arcy Roberts, born 1914, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(b)
Harold A. Roberts, born 1883, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[4] No further record in NSW.
(c) Dudley Hauhton Roberts, born 1886, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1963, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Ida M. Tucker, 1910, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Charles Kippax Roberts, born 1911, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Juanita D. Black, 1929, St Peters, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(2)
Clarence Richard Roberts, born 1914, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Margaret Elizabeth O'Connor, 1947, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3) Robert Harold Roberts, born 1918, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1972, Gundagai, NSW.[5] Married Mona Jean McAlpine, 1941, North Sydney, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d) Linda Waugh Roberts, born 1887, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1968, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4]
ii.

Ada Australia Kippax,[291] born 1860, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1940, Inverell, NSW.[4] Married Frederick McRoberts, 1885, Sydney, NSW.[4] Frederick, s/o Robert & Sarah, died 1912, Narrabri, NSW.[4]
Children: (a)
 
Leila McRoberts, born 1885, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married William F. Bevan, 1910, Inverell, NSW.[4]
Children: (1)
 
Ada Claire Bevan, born 1913, Inverell, NSW.[4] Married Thomas Bede Timmins, 1936, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(2)
Ronald H. Bevan, born 1914, Inverell, NSW.[4]
(3) Leila Falconer Bevan, born 1915, Inverell, NSW.[4] Married Clive Robert Beneke, 1939, Inverell, NSW.[4]
(b)
Arthur C. McRoberts, born 1887, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1888, Lithgow, NSW.[4]
(c) Raymond Falconer McRoberts, born 1889, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1971, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
iii.

Eva May Kippax,[291] born 1863, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died Randwick, 1949, Sydney, NSW.[5]
iv.

Arthur Percival Howell Kippax,[277,291] born 21/4/1865, No.5 Hill Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[4,296] Died 12/9/1938, Waverley, Sydney, NSW.[4,289]
  "Mr Arthur Percival Howell Kippax, of Bondi, who died at the age of 73 yesterday, had been an employee of the Water Board for nearly 50 years. He joined the board shortly after it was formed. Mr Kippax who was born in Sydney and was the father of Alan Kippax, the cricketer, was well known in sporting circles. He was a member of the Sydney Cricket Ground for more than 50 years, and attended nearly every important cricket and football match played there. He was also a vice-president of the New South Wales Baseball Association. Mr. Kippax is survived by Mrs. Kippax and three sons-Messrs. Arthur (Greenwich), Roy (Bondi), and Alan (Bondi) Kippax-and five grandchildren."[289]  
 Cashier.[277] Married Sophia Estelle Craigie,[277] 10/4/1890, Moore Park Road, Moore Park, Sydney, NSW,[4,290] at Arthur's home, by Rev. W. S. Frackelton, B.D.[290]  Sophia, d/o Captain James & Annie,[290] died 1938, Waverley, Sydney, NSW.[4] Resided 1890, Moore Park Road, Moore Park, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[290] Resided 1897, Paddington, Sydmey, NSW.[277] Resided 1938, Bondi, Sydney, NSW.[289]
Children: (a)
 
Arthur Craigie Kippax, born 1891, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1976, NSW.[5] Married Marian E. Gibson, 1919, Sydney, NSW.[4] Resided 1938, Greenwich.[289]
(b)
Roy Waugh Kippax, born 1892, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1979, NSW.[5] Married Hope M. Tanner, 1929, Sydney, NSW.[4] Resided 1938, Bondi, Sydney, NSW.[289]
(c)
Alan Kippax (1930)
Alan Kippax (1930)
Photo -  Wikipedia

Alan Falconer Kippax, born 25/5/1897, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4,277] Died at home, 5/9/1972, Bellevue Hill, Sydney, NSW.[277] Clerk, sports store operator/owner, international cricketer, radio sports announcer, author.[277] Test Cricketer, 1924-1934, including the infamous Bodyline series.[277] Captain of the NSW State Cricket team, 1926-1934, during which time he nutured the talent of a promising youngster by the name of Donald Bradman, who would later become the greatest player the game has ever seen.[277] {With a batting average 39% higher than any other player, many have argued that, statistically at least, Bradman was the greatest sportsman in any sport. And as his state captain during Bradman's formative years, Kippax arguably had a greater
Alan Kippax (1934)
Alan Kippax (1934)
National Library Australia

role in nurturing Bradman's career than any other person}
"Alan Falconer Kippax (1897-1972), cricketer, was born on 25 May 1897 at Paddington, Sydney, third son of Arthur Percival Howell Kippax, cashier, and his wife Sophie Estelle, née Craigie, both born in Sydney. Educated at Bondi and Cleveland Street Public schools, he began playing at 14 with Waverley District Cricket Club and by 1914-1915 was an established first-grade batsman. When the Sheffield Shield competition was resumed in 1918-1919 he was twice chosen to play for New South Wales; the return to Australia, however, of H. L. Collins's Australian Imperial Force side restricted his opportunities until 1922-1923, when he topped the Australian averages with 491 runs at 98. Next season he toured New Zealand with a State team and in 1924-1925 played in the last Test against England. The omission of Kippax from the 1926 Australian team to England, despite a Sheffield Shield average of 112 in 1925-26, is a celebrated blunder in Australian cricket history. After scoring heavily for New South Wales in 1927-28, including one innings of 315 not out, Kippax returned to the Australian side next season; he remained a Test regular until 1932, playing all five Tests against England in 1928-29, on the 1930 tour of England, and against the West Indies in 1930-31. A head injury in 1931, which caused him to miss one of the Tests against South Africa, made him susceptible to 'bodyline'; dropped after thefirst Test in 1932, he broadcast accounts of later matches for the British Broadcasting Corporation, and with E. P.Barbour wrote the polemical Anti Bodyline (Sydney, 1933). He made a second tour of England in 1934 when, although hampered by illness, he played in the final Test. In 22 Test matches, he scored 1192 runs at 36, with two centuries. A right-hand, impeccably correct and elegant batsman, Kippax had an upright, easy stance at the wicket; like his schoolboy idol Victor Trumper, he rolled his sleeves between wrist and elbow and excelled with the late cut. Captain of New South Wales in 1926-34, 'Kip' welded with wit, kindness and some practical joking a raw team into a formidable unit, nurturing such youngsters as Archie Jackson, Stan McCabe and (Sir) Donald Bradman; through him the Trumper style passed to Jackson. Kippax's 6096 runs at 70 for New South Wales in Sheffield Shield competition has remained a record since his retirement in 1935. His most famous innings was at Christmas 1928, when he made 260 not out against the traditional enemy Victoria, sharing a world record last-wicket partnership of 307 with H. L. Hooker. In first-class matches Kippax scored some 12,750 runs at 58, with 43 centuries; for Waverley he made over 7000 runs at 53. Elected a life member of the New South Wales Cricket Association in 1943-44, he shared a benefit with Bert Oldfield in 1949 which realized almost £6100. In 1926 Kippax, then a clerk, had opened a sports store at Martin Place which he built into a successful business. A prominent lawn bowler after his retirement from cricket, he died of heart disease at his home at Bellevue Hill on 5 September 1972, survived by his wife Mabel Charlotte, née Catts, whom he had married at St Stephen's Presbyterian Church on 20 April 1928. His estate was sworn for probate at $302,160. The Kippax Centre in the Canberra suburb of Holt is named after him."[277]
"Alan Falconer Kippax (25 May 1897 – 5 September 1972) was a cricketer for New South Wales (NSW) and Australia. Regarded as one of the great stylists of Australian cricket during the era between the two World Wars, Kippax overcame a late start to Test cricket to become a regular in the Australian team between the 1928–29 and 1932–33 seasons. A middle-order batsman, he touredEngland twice, and at domestic level was a prolific scorer and a highly considered leader of NSW for eight years. To an extent, his Test figures did not correspond with his great success for NSW and he is best remembered for a performance in domestic cricket - a world record last wicket partnership, set during a Sheffield Shield match in 1928–29. His career was curtailed by the controversial Bodyline tactics employed by England on their 1932–33 tour of Australia; Kippax wrote a book denouncing the tactics after the series concluded. Kippax was an 'impeccably correct and elegant batsman, [with] an upright, easy stance at the wicket; like his schoolboy idol Victor Trumper, he rolled his sleeves between wrist and elbow and excelled with the late cut', who was probably at his peak during the 1920s. His omission from the 1926 team to tour England caused great controversy at the time -- especially as he hit a brilliant 271 not out against Victoria on the eve of selection. Kippax was well into his thirties by the time he became a consistent selection for the Test team. Highly regarded by both fellow players and spectators, Kippax's innings of 83 in the Lord's Test of 1930 induced Neville Cardus to comment that, 'he pleased the eye of the connoisseur all the time.' After a period working as a clerk, Kippax opened a sports store in Martin Place, Sydney during 1926. It became a very profitable business. Two years later, on 20 April 1928 at St Stephen's Presbyterian Church, he married Mabel Charlotte Catts. The New South Wales Cricket Association elected him a life member in 1943–44. In February 1949, Kippax was awarded a joint testimonial with his old teammate, wicketkeeper Bert Oldfield. Played between Lindsay Hassett’s XI and Arthur Morris’s XI at the SCG, the match raised £6,030, which was split evenly between Kippax and Oldfield. In later years, Kippax was an A-grade golfer at The Lakes course in Sydney and a club champion lawn bowler at Double Bay. A '... small, gentle man with a kindly way about him', Kippax enjoyed a great reputation within the game; he was 'a man of personal charm'. As elegant off the field as he was on, the cricket writer David Frith recorded that, 'to visit him in his Bellevue Hill home was to be transported into a calm 1930s world of silk smoking jacket, cigarette holder and art deco trimmings.' Kippax died of heart disease at his home in Bellevue Hill on 5 September 1972. The Kippax Centre in the Canberra suburb of Holt is named after him."[Wikipedia]

Married Mabel Charlotte Catts, 20/4/1928, St Stephen's Presbyterian, Sydney, NSW.[4,277] Resided 1938, Bondi, Sydney, NSW.[289] Resided, 1972, Bellevue Hill, Sydney, NSW.[277]
v.

Harold S. Kippax, born 1869, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1925, Gosford, Sydney, NSW.[4] Did not marry.[4]
vi.
Cecil Waugh Kippax,[291,331,564,565] born 22/4/1874, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 27/2/1951, Wingham, NSW,[5,292,330] & buried Wingham General Cemetery.[330] Will probated 8/8/1951.[292]
  "The Will of Cecil Waugh Kippax late of Kippax near Wingham in the State of New South Wales, Farmer deceased. Probate granted by the Supreme Court ot New South Wales on the 8th Ausust 1951 Pursuant to the Wills Probate and Administration Act, testators Family Maintenance and Guardianship of Infants Act 1916-1938 and Trustee Act 1925-1940. Alice Veda Kippax, Neta Falconer Jenner (in the will called Neta Falconer Kippax) and Sidney Kippax the Executors ot the Will of the said Cecil Waugh Kippax who died on the 27th February 1951 hereby give Notice that Creditors, and others having any claim against or to the Estate of the said deceased are required to send particulars of their claims to the said Executors care of the undersigned Proctors on or before the 28th November 1951 at the expiration of which time the said Executors will distribute the assets of the said deceased to the persons entitled having regard only to the claims of which they then have notice Dated this 21st August 1951."[292]  
 Married Alice Veda Lewis,[330,331,565] 1913, Wingham, NSW.[4] Resided 1951, "Kippax", Wingham, NSW.[292]
Children: (a)
 
Neta Falconer Kippax, born 1914, Wingham, NSW.[4]
(b)
Sidney Kippax, born 1916, Wingham, NSW.[4] Married Nora Priscilla Mary Kippax, 1947, Taree, NSW.[5]
(c) Robert Kippax, born 22/1/1918, Wingham, NSW.[4,332] Died 13/9/1944, Wingham, NSW,[4,331] & buried Church of England Section, Marlee Cemetery, NSW (26yo).[331] Australian Infantry Force, 2/18th Batallion, Service No. NX32120.[331] Married Nora Priscilla Mary Brewer,[331] 1944, Wingham, NSW.[4] Resided 1944, Bobin, near Wingham, NSW.[331]
Children: (1)
 
Robert Gerald Kippax, born 1944.[332] Died 1944 & buried Church of England Section, Marlee Cemetery, NSW.[332]
(d) Owen Cecil Kippax,[5] born 1921.[332] Died 5/3/1972, Taree, NSW,[5,331] & buried Anglican Section, Marlee General Cemetery, NSW.[331] Married Senga Isabel Brewer,[332] 1944, Wingham, NSW.[4]
(e) Dudley Kippax, born 21/8/1922, Fassifern, NSW, Australia.[565] Died 12/7/1987 & buried Anglican section, Wamberal Cemetry, NSW, Australia.[565] Married Betty Adele Stokes, 25/4/1944, St Martins Anglican Church, Kensington, NSW, Australia.[565]
Children: (1)
 
Marilyn Adele Kippax.[565]
(2)Leila Grace Kippax.[565]
(3)Graham Stuart Kippax.[565]
(4)Colin Waugh Kippax.[565]
(5)Douglas Victor Kippax.[565]
(f)Ronald Samuel Kippax, born 24/5/1927.[332] Died 18/7/1985 & buried Church of England Section, Marlee Cemetery, NSW (55yo).[332]
vii.
Aneta Emily P. Kippax, born 1876, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1876, Sydney, NSW.[4]

viii.
Harrington Falconer Kippax, born 1877, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1878, Sydney, NSW.[4]
ix. Ellen Blanche Kippax,[291] born 1871, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1944, Sutherland, Sydney, NSW.[4] Did not marry.[4]

   
City Markets, George Street (1870)
City Markets, George Street (1870)
Photograph - State Library of NSW
Cnr Clare & Hill St's, Surry Hills
Cnr Clare & Hill St's, Surry Hills
Photograph - Realestate.com
6-12 Hill Street, Surry Hills
6-12 Hill Street, Surry Hills
Photo - City of Sydney Demolition Books
  The original City Markets or Sydney Markets were built on the site now occupied by the Queen Victoria Buildings. The markets were located near the Market Street Wharf in Cockle Bay, built in the 1820s. Both the wharf & the Markets were established for vessels bringing fresh produce from Parramatta to help feed Sydney. Vessels carrying produce from the Hawkesbury district and overseas presumably docked elsewhere, but their produce also ended up at the Markets. The Market Street Wharf still stands today (next to the Sydney Aquarium in Darling Harbour) and is the only wharf from that era that remains. In 1834 Governor Bourke decided to move traders in hay and grain to a site next to the new cattle market in Campbell Street, Sydney, which became known as the Haymarket, and also giving the name to the suburb today. The move created a split among stallholders at the original market. Some had regular customers among the cattlemen and hay and grain growers, and they moved to join farmers in the new Haymarket area. The food sellers and second hand dealers also did a good trade, both in the vicinity of the market house and around the Haymarket pubs. The majority, however, stayed on at the George Street market. The Sydney Market was demolished around 1890 and in 1893 construction began on its replacement, the Queen Victoria Buildings. The QVB was completed in 1898 and included coffee shops, showrooms and a concert hall. It also provided a business environment for tradesmen such as tailors, mercers, hairdressers, and florists. Those stallholders who did not fit into (or were not welcome in) the new Market moved to the split-off market in Haymarket which continues to operate today in almost the same manner as the original Sydney Market. Combining food produce, second hand goods and a wide range of 'fringe', cheap imports and 'knick knack' stalls it is today known as Paddy's Market, a Sydney institution. Today's successors to the Kippax brothers can still be found in Paddy's plying the ancient trade of poulterer, although their produce today is more along the lines of butchered chicken meat and read-to-eat poultry products.[Darling Harbour, Paddys Markets, City of Sydney Archives, Wikipedia]  
   
1 - 11 Moore Park Road, Paddington
1-11 Moore Park Road, Paddington (1961)
Photograph - Sydney City Archives
26 Moore Park Road, Paddington (1933)
24-28 Moore Park Road, Paddington (1933)
Photograph - Sydney City Archives
St Mark's, Marlee (Wingham)
St Mark's, Marlee (Wingham)
Photograph - Google StreetView
  Paddington is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Paddington is located 3 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and lies across the local government areas of the City of Sydney and the Municipality of Woollahra. Paddington is colloquially known as Paddo. Paddington is located primarily on the northern slope down from a ridgeline at the crest of which runs Oxford Street. Paddington is bordered to the west by Darlinghurst, to the east by Centennial Park and Woollahra, to the north by Edgecliff and Kings Cross and to the south by Moore Park. In the early 1820s, ex-convict entrepreneur and gin distiller Robert Cooper set out to build a grand Georgian estate at the top of Paddington's ridgeline, affording excellent views. He named the area Paddington after a London borough. He called the estate Juniper Hall, which remains Paddington's oldest home. The district's first cottages were built around Victoria Barracks, formerly a major army base. In the latter part of the 19th century, many terrace houses were constructed to house the city's burgeoning working population and an emerging middle class. Over time, these houses filled up almost every parcel of land, causing the suburb to become overpopulated. The unfashionable nature of the suburb continued until the mid-1960s, when gentrification  took hold. At this time the area developed a bohemian aspect with a large arts community attracting creative and alternative residents. The suburb is now an example of uncoordinated urban renewal and restoration, where desirable location and heritage charm have contributed to flourishing real-estate values. Old boot-repair and linen shops have given way to designer fashion outlets and gourmet food. Since 1973, the suburb has also featured a bohemian market, conducted each Saturday in the grounds of the Paddington Uniting Church and the playground of the adjacent Paddington Public School.[Wikipedia]  
     
Farm, Bobin, near Wingham
Farm, Bobin, near Wingham
Photograph - Sell Without Agents
Old farm, Kippaxs, near Wingham
Old farm, Kippaxs, near Wingham
Photograph - Gerry Fedele [Panoramio]
Gravestone, Owen Cecil Kippax, Marlee
Graves, Owen Cecil Kippax, Marlee
Photograph - Aust. Cemetery Index
  Cecil Kippax resided at what is today the locality 'Kippaxs' about 25km due north of Wingham. The locality 'Bobin' is about midway between Kippaxs & Wingham. Kippaxs & Bobin are geographical locations and not villages or even hamlets. Bobin features a small hall and a farm. Marlee is a geographical district between Bobin & Wingham. It is the site of a church, several farms & a winery. Marlee's church, dating to the 1800s, is the closest place of worship to Bobbin & Kippaxs (was this originally Kippax's?) and several Kippax's are buried in the Marlee cemetery. Kippax is named after Cecil, who was the original settler in the valley and settled a thousand acre grant of land  which was farmed by the family as a dairy farm. The original farmhouse (not the one pictured above) is still inhabited; there used to be a post office on the farm and when postcodes were first issued there was one for this post office ‘Kippax’.[565]The Kippax Valley on the North Coast of NSW is about 40 km north-west of Taree on the escarpment of the Comboyne Plateau. It is fertile volcanic country, containing several creeks including Kippax & Dingo Creeks, the later is the largest tributary of the Manning River. The country is lush and green, and abounds with wildlife. The creek is home to many colonies of platypus. The valley extends from the escarpment of the Comboyne plateau to the origins of Dingo Creek, where it arises on the Comboyne escarpment. The Killabakh Nature Reserve lies within the valley. This reserve hosts an amazingly rich fauna, which includes a significant number of threatened species. This may be attributed to the diversity of habitats within the upper Kippax Valley. These habitats range from rainforest to dry sclerophyll - depending upon the micro-environments in the valleys which feed from the Comboyne escarpment. The majority of the area contains native vegetation. Sydney blue gum (E. saligna) and tallowwood (E. microcorys) communities cover about 45% of its area. In the reserve, where these trees have been protected from logging in the early part of last century, they grow to a massive size. This is facilitated by the high rainfall resulting from the proximity of the Comboyne escarpment.[ Devon Herd] Located 331 km north-east of Sydney and 13 km north-west of Taree, Wingham is a charming and peaceful 'old world' country town which has remained largely unchanged by the tourism which has affected the townships of the nearby coastline. Wingham is the oldest town in the Manning Valley. It is situated 20 m above sea-level on the Manning River. Timbergetting has long been the mainstay of the local economy but it is now on the decline. Dairying and beef cattle are presently the area's major industries. Within the town, which functions as the district's commercial centre, are a horseshoe factory, a hydraulic engineering works, a sawmill and an abattoir. The first European settlement in the area was the Bungay estate, established by George Rowley upstream of the present townsite. Cedar-getters moved into the Manning Valley in the late 1820s and a wharf for timber collection was established at the head of navigation for the Manning River. Wingham was laid out on this spot by the government in 1843 and proclaimed the following year. It was named after a village in Kent, England. The first land sale didn't occur until 1854 and the village's development was generally very slow. Nonetheless, until it was surpassed by Taree, Wingham was the main centre of the Manning Valley. A post office and police hut were opened at Bungay in 1853 but were moved to Wingham in 1856 and a school was established in 1864. Selectors began to move into the area after the 1861 Robertson Land Act, establishing agriculture and dairying. By 1866 the village was said to have about 90 inhabitants. River transportation intensified with the need to ship the new forms of local produce and, in the 1880s, the town really began to expand. Between 1880 and 1889 the first bank opened its doors, the two present hotels were built, a post office was established and businesses such as a butcher's and general store were opened. Wingham was declared a town in 1885 and it became a municipality in 1889. In October 1900, Aboriginal outlaw Jimmy Governor was captured by a group of farmers or bush workers north of Wingham. Earlier that year he and his brother Joe had brutally murdered Sarah Mawbey, three of her daughters and schoolteacher Helena Kurz with clubs and a tomahawk at Breelong near Gilgandra. They then went on a three-month, 3200-km rampage, during which they murdered five more people, committed seven armed hold-ups and robbed 33 homes. A massive manhunt involving hundreds of policemen and trackers and 2000 volunteers initially failed to capture the men who ridiculed their pursuers by advertising their whereabouts and sending satiric letters to the police. In October a 1000-pound reward was offered and later in the month they were outlawed, meaning they could be shot on sight by anybody. Jimmy Governor was shot in the mouth to the north of Wingham by a friend of Helena Kurz and was then separated from his brother. Unable to eat due to his injury he was caught when weakened by near-starvation at Bobin Creek. Jimmy and Joe were hung in January of the following year.[SMH]  
     
   

1.3.3. Richard Kippax  (s/o Hannah, d/o Samuel),[4,234,235,236,237] born 6/5/1832, baptised 19/8/1832, St James, Pitt Town, NSW.[246] Died at home, 17/9/1903, "Gotthard", 46 Goodhope Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW (72yo).[4,246,320] Buried 19/9/1903, Church of England Section, Rookwood Cemetery, Sydney, NSW.[321] "Died. Kippax: September 17, at his residence, 46 Goodhope street, Paddington, Richard Kippax, late of 465 Pitt street, Haymarket, in his 72nd year."[320]
  "The friends of Mr Richard Kippax sen, are kindly invited to attend his funeral, which will leave his residence, Gotthard, 46 Goodhope-street, Paddington, this saturday afternoon at 1:30 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Necropolis. Wood & Company, Funeral Directors etc., Sydney & Suburbs. Tel. 728.
The friends of Mr Richard Kippax, jun, are kindly invited to attend the funeral of his late beloved father, Richard, which will leave his late residence, Gotthard, 46 Goodhope-street, Paddington, this saturday afternoon at 1:30 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Necropolis.
The friends of Mr & Mrs Edward Polowright are kindly invited to attend the funeral of their late beloved father, Mr Richard Kippax, sen, which will leave 46 Goodhope-street, Paddington, this saturday afternoon at 1:30 o'clock, for Church of England Cemetery, Necropolis.
The members & ex-members of the late R.A.A. Volunteer Fire Brigade No.1 are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of their late Captain, Richard Kippax, to move from his late residence, St Gotihard (Gotthard?), 46 Goodhope-street, Paddington, this saturday afternoon at 1:30 o'clock, for the Necropolis."[321]
 
Married Mary Elizabeth Walpole, 1858, Sydney, NSW.[4] Mary, d/o George & Ann, died at home, 6/2/1910, Lyle Villa, 24 Arundel Street, Forest Lodge, Sydney, NSW (69).[4,279] Funeral service was held at Christ Church, George Street, 7/3/1910, at 1:30pm.[279]
   "In loving memory of our dear mother Mary Elizabeth Kippax, who departed this life February 6, 1910 at her late residence Lyle Villa, Arundel street Forest Lodge, aged 69 years.
We will not nurse our sorrow, mother,
Nor strive to see the end
You were our help in trouble, mother
Our good and faithful friend
Inserted by her daughter and son in law. Jessie and Charles Matthews."[317]
"In ever loving memory of our dear mother, Mary E. Kippax, who departed this life February 6 1910 at her residence, Lyle Villa, Arundel street Forest Lodge.
We have missed her oh how sadly,
'Twas a bitter blow to us.
But the Lord did take her from us,
For to dwell with him above.
Inserted by her daughter and son in law Annie and Edward Plowright; grandchildren, Horace, Ena."[317]
"In ever loving memory of our dear mother Mary Elizabeth Kippax who departed this life  February 6 1910. Inserted by her loving daughter and son in law Anita and Arthur Matthews."[317]
  "In loving memory of my dear mother, Mary E who departed this life February 6, 1910 at her residence Lyle Villa, Arundel street Forest Lodge aged 69 years.
Silently peacefully angels have borne her
Into the beautiful mansions above,
There she shall rest from all sorrow for ever, 
Safe in the arms of God's infinite love.
Inserted by her loving daughter Violet."[317]
To my beloved friend Mrs Richard Kippax, who departed this life February 6 1910.
In memory evergreen,
Sleep on dear one, in holy peace
In fondest hope thy Saviour dear lo meet.
Inserted by her old friend, M A Malcolme."[317]
"In loving memory of our dear mother who departed this life February 6 1910 at her late residence Lyle Villa Arundel street Forest Lodge  .
Farewell dear mother your task is o'er, Those gentle hands will toil no more, No more those loving eyes will weep Sleep dear mother peacefully sleep.
Inserted by her loving daughter Ella ."[317]
 
Resided 1880, No.465 Pitt Street South, Haymarket, Sydney, NSW.[281,320] Resided 1885, No.25 Smith Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[280] Resided 1903, 46 Goodhope Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[320] Resided 1910, Lyle Villa, 24 Arundel Street, Forest Lodge, Sydney, NSW.[317]

Children of Richard Kippax & Mary Elizabeth Walpole:
i.
 
William Kippex, born 1859, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1859, Sydney, NSW.[4]
ii.

Richard Kippax,[282] born 1862, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 6/3/1922, Northcote Street, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4,278] "Retired Man's Death (Sydney Morning Herald 7/3/1922): Richard Kippax, 60, a retired railway engine driver, was found in an outhouse at his residence, Northcote-street, St Leonards, yesterday, with his throat cut. A razor was found nearby. The Civil Ambulance conveyed him to the Royal North Sydney Hospital, where life was pronounced extinct."[278] Married Annie Warren,[282] 1886, Sydney, NSW.[4] Resided 1887, 10 Denham Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[282]
Children: (a)
 
Vera Warren Kippax, born 2/6/1887, 10 Denham Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[4,282] Died 1959, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Thomas E. Thew, 1909, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[4]
iii.

Emily Kippax, born 1864, Sydney, NSW.[4,285] Died 1949, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Sydney Herbert Flynn, 28/2/1885, Sydney, NSW.[4,280] Marriage was performed by Rev. U. Bradley, Sydney.[280] Sidney, s/o William & Joanna, died 1924, Granville, Sydney, NSW.[4] Resided 1910, Oxford Street, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[285]
Children: (a)
 
Elsie P. F. Flynn, born 1886, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1886, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(b)
Ethel Grace Flynn, born 1888, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Montague Collier, 18/5/1910, St Michael Church of England, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[4,285] Montague of "Meryla", Newland Street, Waverley, Sydney, NSW.[285]
(c) Henry H. N. Flynn, born 1889, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1889, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(d) Albert H. Flynn, born 1890, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1891, Sydney, NSW.[4]
iv.

Frederick Horace Kippax, born 1867, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1897, Sydney, NSW.[4] In 1889 "George Road and Frederick Kippax were each fined 40s, with the option of 14 days gaol, for behaving in a riotous manner in George Street."[293]
v.

Albert Kippax, born 1868, Sydney, NSW.[4] Probably the Horace (Albert Horace?) Kippax, s/o Richard & Mary, died 7/10/1889, Sydney Harbour, NSW.[318] {Indexed in BMD index as 'Thomas'. There is no birth entry for Horace, nor a death or marriage for Albert. Note that Frederick, above, had Horace as a middle name so it is possible this was also the case with Albert} "Horace, the dearly beloved son of Mary and Richard Kippax, who was accidentally drowned in Sydney Harbour, October 7,1889, In the Irene fatality, aged 21 years. One dear face missing to day. Beautiful harbour! No beauty for me! My beautiful boy lies under sea. 'Farewell, dear mother!' was all that he said, And the green waves closed quickly over his head. The billows shall be his pure winding sheet, Until the day when he and I shall meet."[318]
vi.
Hannah Kippax, born 1871, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1942, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Edward D. Plowright, 1893, Sydney, NSW.[4] Edward, s/o Henry & Julia, died 1919, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4] Resided 1910, No. 254 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW.[279]
Children: (a)
 
Horace K. Plowright, 1893, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1945, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(b)
Ena K. Plowright, born 1906, Sydney, NSW.[4]
vii.
Charlotte M. Kippax, born 1873, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1875, Sydney, NSW.[4]

viii.
Leslie Kippax, born 1876, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1876, Sydney, NSW.[4]
ix. Alla Ann Kippax, born 1876, Sydney, NSW.[4] No further record in NSW.
x. Jessie Hilda Kippax, born 1877, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1943, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Charles H. Matthews, 1909, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (a)
 
Roy Kippax Matthews, born 1913, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Dorothy Arden Burleigh Vaughan, 1937, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(b)
Mavis Nea Kippax Matthews, born 1914, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Reginald William Donald Napier, 1938, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[4]
xi. Lucilla Kippax, born 1880, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 10/1880, Sydney, NSW.[4,281] Buried 10/10/1880.[281] "The Friends of Richard Kippax are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved daughter, Lucilla, to move from his residence, Pitt-street South, on Sunday. October 10, at 2 o'clock." (SMH 9/10/1880).[281]
xii. Priscilla Violet Kippax, born 1881, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1959, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Denis McNamara, 1912, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (a)
 
Doreen Kippax McNamara, born 1913, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married John O'Brien, 1938, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(b)
Denis Leonard McNamara, born 1914, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Dorothy Jean Sandoz/Williamson, 1938, Waverley, Sydney, NSW.[4]
xiii. Grace M. Anita Kippax, born 1884, Sydney, NSW.[4] Died 1965, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Arthur H. Matthews, 1909, Sydney, NSW.[4]
Children: (a)
 
Phyllis May Matthews, born 1905, Woonona, Sydney, NSW.[4]
(b)
Edna May Matthews, born 1909, Woonona, Sydney, NSW.[4] Married Victor Paterson Hanna, 1942, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW.[4]

     
345 - 357 Pitt St (1911)
Typical South Pitt Street residences (1911)
Photograph - Sydney City Archives
6 Smith Street, Surry Hills (1902)
6 Smith Street, Surry Hills (1902)
Photograph - Sydney City Archives
28-32 Goodhope St, Paddington
28-32 Goodhope St, Paddington
Photograph - Realestate View
  465 Pitt Street South, Haymarket, was located at the intersection of Pitt & Hay Streets. The building where Richard spent several decades in residence was demolished c.1890, along with the entire block, to make way for the New Belmore Markets. The Markets proved not to be a financial success (more a White Elephant) and in 1914-1916 it was converted into the Hippodrome for the Wirth Curcus. In 1928 The Hippodrome was renovated and converted into a movie theatre and re-named the Capitol Theatre. The Capitol is the oldest theatre in Sydney and one of only three "picture palaces" remaining in the world ouotside of the USA. The Capitol was restored in 1986 and is today one of Sydney's premier entertainment venues. "Prior to 1892 the site bounded by George, Campbell, Pitt & Hay Streets, containing a small 'Haymarket Building', was known as Haymarket Reserve. The site was used for 'Paddy's Market' on Saturday nights. Together with the stalls displaying all manner of wares were to be found circuses, sideshows of all descriptions, intinerant musicians, street corner missionaries, pie and green-pea vendoes and merry-go-rounds."[Capitol Theatre] 46 Goodhope Street has been demolished and replaced with a 1950s style block of flats. No.46 was probably a terrace building as are almost all period structures on the street. Haymarket is an locality of Sydney's city centre, New South Wales, Australia. It is located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Sydney. Haymarket also includes much of Sydney's Chinatown and Railway Square localities. Haymarket is adjacent to Darling Harbour and is surrounded by the suburbs of Ultimo, Chippendale, Surry Hills, and the Sydney CBD. Sydney's produce markets were located in Haymarket from the early 20th century through to the 1980s when they were moved to a new site at Flemington. Paddy's Markets still operate on part of the site of the vegetable markets as a produce and flea market. The outer walls of the original vegetable market, built in 1909, were preserved and restored as an example of Edwardian architecture. They were part of the original city markets - designed by city architect C. Broderick - which were bounded by Hay Street, Quay Street and Thomas Street. They were built to replace the old Belmore Market, which had failed because it was too far from Darling Harbour. The new markets included the Sydney City Markets building (Ultimo Road), designed by George McRae and built in 1910, and the Sydney Markets Bell Tower (Quay Street), built in 1911 and restored by the State Bank in 1985. The bell tower is now incorporated within the University of Technology, Sydney.[Wikipedia]  
   
Lyle Villa, 24 Arundel Street, Forest Lodge
Lyle Villa, 24 Arundel Street, Forest Lodge
Photograph - Google StreetView
Christ Church St Laurence, George Street
Christ Church St Laurence, George Street
Photograph - Christ Church St Laurence
10 Denham St, Surry Hills
10 Denham St, Surry Hills
Photograph - Rent Property
  Forest Lodge is a small, inner-city suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Forest Lodge is located 4 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney. It is also part of the Inner West region of Sydney. Ross Street and the intersecting St Johns Road, form the centre of the neighbourhood, with a small collection of bars, cafes and antique stores. The area is popular with students from the nearby University of Sydney and UTS. It is considered to be a quieter alternative to neighbouring Glebe, which shares many of its features. The housing stock is predominantly Victorian, a sizeable proportion of which has been converted into apartment houses in varying states of restoration. Forest Lodge was named after a house built in the area in 1836 by Ambrose Foss. The house stood on the present site of 208-210 Bridge Road until it was demolished in 1912.[Wikipedia]  
   


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